"Mirror Listening" is a popular method of divination in ancient times: "Look for an ancient mirror first, and hold it in the bag, be alone with the kitchen god, don’t let people see, hold the mirror in both hands, and recite the mantra seven times. Listening to what people say, you can determine the bad and the good... and everything is true.” Because of its effectiveness, women in the imperial examination era often used the mirror to determine whether a fortuneteller could reach the top. Pu Songling’s short story "Mirror Listening" describes such a short story. The story: There is a scholar named Erzheng. His wife secretly listened to the end of the divination test of Erzheng through a mirror, and therefore "begins to know the experience of hearing the mirror."
But the theme of "Mirror Listening" is not to promote the "efficiency of mirror listening", but to reflect the tragic impact of the social system of imperial examinations on the family.
"The Zheng brothers are all bachelor of arts. Da Zheng was well-known early. His parents had tasted love, and they were married to his wife; the second Zheng Luotuo was not very popular with his parents, so he was the second wife. It's not contemptuous." The Zheng brothers are all able to read books, but Da Zheng became famous early, and his parents preferred him and even his eldest daughter-in-law. Er Zheng was out of luck, and his parents didn't like him very much. They didn't even wait to see his wife, and they didn't treat her as a daughter-in-law.
Parents Treating one's two sons differently and adopting different attitudes based on their fame and fame reflects the society's secular sentiments towards imperial examinations and those who have failed. It is the "true talent" in the eyes of the world, and the "true son" in the eyes of parents. "Articles can be self-defeating, painstaking people have glory, are all for the first." All flaws. "Those who fail the rankings even make every hair and beard feel.Disgusting, no matter how good the article is, it is considered to be faulty everywhere. At this time, not only the article and painstaking efforts are all depressed, but also the love of parents and husband and wife. The glory and sadness of the scholars come from the world's favors that tend to be inflamed. The cold reception of Erzheng and his wife in the "courtyard", that is, their parents' home, is a symbol of the social encounters of the frustrated in the examination room.
The imperial examination system drives people to snobbery. Once the snobbery is in mind, it is normal that the favor will be reversed. But when the gains and losses on the scientific field became the axis of family tragedy and comedy, parent-child love and blood relationship also became snobbish acquaintances that were attached to each other and abandoned in coldness. This perverted and distorted family was "poverty, parents without children". The relationship not only reflects the depravity of the world’s conditions and customs, but also reflects the tragic impact of imperial examinations on society and families.
Compared with the enthusiasm for Dazheng’s husband and wife, the parents are much more indifferent to Erzheng’s husband and wife. Sorry, I can only complain about my unsuccessful husband: "They are all men, why can't you fight for your wife and children like others! "Later, I just separated from Erzheng.
Erzheng Kechang was frustrated. Not only did his parents not treat him as a son, his wife did not treat him as a husband, and complained that he could not be a "bed." Exhale", she is simply angry and does not live with her. In her eyes, a husband who has fallen behind is certainly not a lovely husband. As a wife, she does not need to be innocent and virtuous. The act of separation certainly includes encouraging and persuading her husband. The meaning of learning, but it may not be disgusting. In this way, Zoff became famous and even forced his husband to become famous. It was the social atmosphere at the time. It can be seen that the boudoirs' fascination for fame and wealth is eager and strong. Husband. Driven by this vulgar desire, a unique style of persuading and reading in the imperial examination society was formed. Its strength and popularity were unprecedented.
Encouraging learning by virtue of fame is far more effective than all the official selection systems in history. Song Zhenzong’s "Encourage Learning Chapter" says: "The rich don’t have to buy fertile land. The book has a thousand bells and millets. You don’t need to raise a high hall to live in. The book has its own golden house. Don’t hate an unscrupulous matchmaker when you marry a wife. You have Yan Ruyu in the book. Go out. Don’t hate that no one is with you, there are so many carts and horses in the books. The man wants to live his life, and read the Five Classics to the window!” This is the emperor’s personal appearance to persuade scholars to go to school with wealth and beauty, and the reading fashion prevailed because of this. Yu Shi. But this kind of reading is for the sake of being an official, for the sake of thousands of bells, gold houses, Yan Ruyu, and cars like clusters. This makes the scholars diligent and vulgar, becoming mediocre and greedy. The whole world regards wealth as the heart, thisThis is the root cause of the degeneration of scholars and the shame of the world.
According to the "Quan Tang Poetry Notes", Du Gao will come home when he is in his second place. His wife Liu will send poems to him:
liang Humans have geniuses, why have they been put back every year?
Nowadays, the concubine is ashamed of the king, and if the concubine comes here late at night.
This is after the husband fell, the wife wrote poems to encourage her husband to continue to study hard in order to gain fame, but "now the concubine is ashamed of the king", it is normal for the poor to be rejected by the wife. Du Gao got the poem, and was ashamed to see his wife, and immediately returned to Chang'an. Later, when Du Gao entered the first place, Liu sent a poem:
Chang'an has nowhere to go, lush and beautiful.
My beloved is very young, where can I sleep drunk tonight?
This is after the husband was admitted to the department, and his wife boasted that he was "a good beloved being young", and his pride and care were beyond words and asked him " Where do I sleep drunk tonight", since I really miss my husband, There are also concerns about his change of heart. Because in real life, it is not uncommon for scholars to change their minds after they are in power. Scholars under the imperial examination system, those who were not married or were rejected by their wives, and those who had changed their fortunes or rejected their wives. For marriage and family, losing in the ranking is a tragedy, and reaching the ranking may not be a tragedy. In short, the impact of imperial examinations on marriage and family is tragic in nature. The success or failure of imperial examinations tested family affection and love.
In a society where men are inferior to women, a wife is attached to her husband. She naturally hopes that her husband will honor his wife. As a husband, she assumes the responsibility of raising his wife’s social status and improving his wife’s living conditions. The last important reason is to hope that his wife can be proud of herself. Da Zheng’s wife was “known for a long time” because of her husband, and “parents have tasted love”; as Er Zheng, letting his wife be treated by his parents like Da Zheng’s wife should be one of his most direct motivations for studying hard . Two Zheng women are unique to womenTenderness and determination to urge her husband to pursue imperial examination fame is the common experience of countless scholars under the imperial examination system. Although the ending of the story is idealized, there are few enviable elements and many regrettable elements after reading it.
Er Zheng Xin was moved and studied hard, and then gradually gained fame. At this time, his parents looked a little bit differently, but after all, they were still not as caring for Dazheng and his wife.
Erzheng's wife is extremely eager to expect her husband to gain fame, and it is the year of the election of the electorate that she wants to use the technique of mirror listening to fortune the results of her husband's examination. The reason why Mirror Listening was able to predict the results of the examination reflected the very popular concept of "pre-determination of subject names" in the society at that time, that the existence and size of scholars' subject names were all destined. For scholars, success is not only related to honor and inferiority, but also to honor and disgrace. Therefore, we all expect Chunwei to be proud. Therefore, the scholars and their families all prayed with sincerityWith the help of the boundless gods, ghosts and gods, the world is full of luck and superstition.
On New Year’s Eve, she held her mirror and prayed to the kitchen god. The mirror goes out, eavesdropping on the unintentional words of passers-by, and uses this to fortune-telling. I saw the two of them pushing and playing together, saying, "You also go to the cold!" She went home and was puzzled. She didn't know what kind of examinations "You also go to the cold" foreshadowed her husband.As a result, it was discarded without mentioning it.
The mirror of Erzheng’s wife listens to divination, which “can help the husband’s life and check his life”, which shows the passivity and powerlessness of scholars in the face of fate. People are keen to use various methods to predict the good or bad of the imperial examination, and the people have formed beliefs and customs that believe in the so-called good prophecies. Mirror listening and divination are not accidental personal behaviors, but are quite universal. "The decision is based on the other", that is, it can solve the confusion and worries that people are eager to solve, and for the imperial examinations What makes them most confused and worrying is the fate and future of their own scientific research, so asking God to ask for divination becomes commonplace. "Mirror Listening" reflects this social atmosphere.
The exam is over and my brothers are all gone. The heat was still strong, and the two men and women were busy cooking in the kitchen. Suddenly, I saw that the horse came to report the good news of the recruitment of Da Zheng. The mother went into the kitchen and called Da Zheng’s wife: "The big man is Chinese! You can go cool." Er Zheng’s wife listened to her mother-in-law’s words.Angry and sad, cooking while crying in the kitchen.
When Dazheng is admitted to Juren, his wife can be liberated from the extremely hot kitchen. The title of Jinbang and Juzixiadi are the two extremes of great sorrow and joy. The parents only expressed their due respect and congratulations to Dazheng, who was named by the Jinbang, for his wife "Go cool and cool." They thought that Erzheng had already lost his name. , But no comfort to this man of great compassion. The coldness of the parents really makes people feel cold to the bone. No wonder Erzheng's wife is "sick, crying and cooking."
"Russia has another person who reported the second Zhengjie." Seeing that the reporter came to the door, the second Zheng Yi was judged!
Er Zheng, who was so coldly treated by his parents as a loser, suddenly received a "Chinese" victory. This dramatic scene made people lament the unpredictable fate. This idealized ending represents the wishes and ideals of all scholars. Chao Wei Tian Shelang, and the evening ascend to Tian Zi Tang, are both dreams and reality. Two Zheng's WifeShe raised her eyebrows for the victory of her husband’s literary war, "throwing the bread stick and rising up", saying: "Long go to the cold!" This was an indignant statement that was blurted out, and she suddenly understood what Jinghe said. Hajime's hearing experience is also". "You can go to the cold", this phrase is intended to be solvable and unsolvable. After some twists and turns, it has been fulfilled, and people suddenly horrified God's prophetic foresight, as if the name of the science is true. But not so much that the "mirror listening experience" proves that "the name of the family is determined beforehand", it is more proof of the impermanence of the world: the water dragon loses water. The ups and downs of the fate of scholars will inevitably be accompanied by the emotional experience of intimacy and solitude. Those who fall behind are more able to experience the embarrassment and helplessness of "the poor and the servants are slow, the officials dismiss friends and friends".
The success or failure of the imperial examination is not only related to the destiny of the sons, but also to the honor and disgrace of the family. The treatment of the imperial court and the flattery of the imperial court in the world make the sense of loss and humiliation of the losers doubly heavy. Parents still use snobbery. He treats his son with his heart, who can not be influenced by material desires, and who can not be confused by the world’s feelings! This is the root cause of the degeneration of the world.
After narrating this comedy story, the author uses Shi’s “Said” form explains and expresses its inner meaning: “If you are poor, your parents will not have children, so you can do it! In the drapery, it is not a place of anger; but the two Zheng women inspire the men,Also different from the resentful rogue. Throwing a stick, it's so happy through the ages! "There is a reason why parents do not regard themselves as sons when people are poor. The reason lies in the snobbery and vulgar worldliness created by the imperial examination system, and the "parents’ infidelity" is a kind of rebellious and unreasonable behavior. This phenomenon highlights the depravity of the world and the coldness of human feelings.
"In the courtyard, it is not a place of anger", which means that the place where parents live is certainly not what makes children feel angry. Place. But for the Erzhengs, “in the courtyard, is it not a place of anger"! It can be seen that the snobbery, strength, and popularity of the world have not only spread throughout the courtyard, but also deep into the bone marrow. /p>
The distortion of the imperial examination system to the personality of the scholars and the whole society can be described as thrilling. The poet Luo Yeyou of the Tang Dynasty wrote in the poem "Appreciation of Spring": "The grass and the smoke are warmer, and the idle door is a life ; Inspect human affairs every year, only the spring breeze is unworldly. "When spring comes, spring grass is everywhere, whether it is the poor alleys or the main roads of the gates of power, the spring grass is the same lush green, full of green; the spring breeze year by year checks the affairs of the world, and treats everything in the world equally. Only in Fang Cao He Chunfeng can’t see the snobbery and insolence of human feelings. "Mirror Listening" reflects this reality and expresses this feeling.generous. "Only the spring breeze does not affect the world" is an indignant language of dissatisfaction with the world, and it is also an enlightenment to see through the world.
Pu Songling, as a frustrated person in the examination room, enjoys the warmth and warmth of human relationships, and deeply appreciates the coldness of the world. He condensed his deep understanding of life and comprehensive observation of society in the short story "Mirror Listening", focusing on a drama performed by an ordinary family. "Mirror Listening" reflects all aspects of the imperial examination system, and truly reflects the social mentality of "only spring breeze is not worldly affection" under the imperial examination system, and it can be called a textbook for insight into the world's human sentiments. The author did not show obvious emotional tendencies towards any of the characters, freeing readers from the love and hatred of the characters, breaking through the persuasive and punishing model of traditional novels, criticizing society with keen thoughts and insights, and reflecting on the imperial examination system. It has valuable ideological and artistic value.