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The coastal area of Northern Ireland is not only famous for the rough beauty of its scenery, but also for its strong wind. The eighth season of "Game of Thrones" vividly showcases these two characteristics.
One afternoon in April 2018, the crew was filming the final season of Game of Thrones. The show is not only a super hit show produced by HBO, but also a cultural touchstone. Ballintoy Port is located at the eastern end of Northern Ireland.The play is often filmed here. Today, the cast and crew are shooting a relatively uncomplicated scene here. Jon Snow (played by Kit Harrington) and his men arrive in a secluded cove by rowing boat. Jon disembarked, strode across the beach, and Lord Varys (played by Conles Hill) came to greet him.
Photography director Fabian Wagner and director Miguel Sapochnik (Miguel Sapochnik) have captured the final shots with a 62-foot MovieBird telescopic gun placed on the top of a hill near the beach. And when this big rocker slowly moved along the downhill path to the beach, the B and C cameras were shooting some wide-range shots in different areas on the beach.
Just as the three cameras were shooting, a gust of wind hit the beach arbitrarily. The crew quickly put on protective covers for the three ArriAlexaSXTPlus cameras. Others looked for shelter-it was not easy. At this time, the working tent of the film crew was shaking violently, and it looked like it was about to be blown away. We ran into the DIT shed to take shelter, and the digital imaging technician Yi Ian Marrs looks calm.
The eighth season of the show, which is the final season, started on April 14 and ended on May 19. The crew filmed the season for all six. During the episode, we (the staff of American Cinematographer Magazine) were invited to the set for a three-day viewing and interview. During our writing of this article, the crew are free to talk about episodes 1 to 1The content of the three episodes, the first two episodes and the third episode were directed by David Franco and Wagner respectively. The next three episodes were directed by Franco, Wagner and ASC member Jonathan Freeman. Wagner and Freeman respectively won the American Cinematographer's Association Award for the ninth episode of the sixth season of Quan You "Battle of Bastards" and the first episode of the third season "Mortal Needs to Serve".
The first to third episodes took place in Winterfell, where the Stark family is located. There, the army of the living is prepared; it is also there that the living and the division of the dead finally start the long-awaited epic war. First episodeAs soon as "Winter City" opened, Queen Daenerys (Emilia Clarke), Jon, Tyrion Lannister (Peter Dinlaki) and Varys led thousands of The army overcame the mountains, through the village, and came to Winterfell Castle. Prior to this, several other royal families had arrived in Winterfell.
"In the beginning, the camera shot a young boy running in a snow-covered forest, and then followed his steps to the back of the crowd watching the march," Franco said. The French-born director of photography has been involved in the production of the show since the fourth season. In the eighth season, he collaborated with director David Nutter for the first time. "The boy couldn't squeeze the front row, so he had to climb a tree to see it. The place where the tree was located was a live scene, but the scene that the boy saw after climbing to a high place was shot in the studio with a green screen. Camera Use the boy’s face as a pivot point to show the boyWhat you saw: A group of soldiers winding through the countryside. The distant scenery and soldiers were added by digital image processing. "
The shooting of this scene requires the dispatch of five cameras. Among them, the A camera is installed on the AlphaHead electronic control head on the top of the 62-foot-long MovieBird telescopic swing arm, and this set of devices is Installed on the ScarabXL all-terrain four-wheel drive camera-this set of kits is dedicated to the eighth season, and was designed and manufactured by the British company AlphaGrip at the request of the equipment director Pat Garrett. Equipped with a 17-80mm Angénieux Optimo zoom lens, the handheld of A machine is Sean Sava-ge, who is a member of the BSC Association and a member of the handheld associations of the United Kingdom and the United States. "We must constantly adjust ourThere is a camera position, because there are too many shots in this scene. "Franco recalled: "There was still a camera behind the cavalry team. "
Since the second season, AlphaGrip has provided the Moviebird telescopic rocker and ATV equipment package for the filming of the show, and also provided an MB44 rocker and a smaller set for the eighth season. The Scarab camera car.
Because it has been two years since the last season of "Game of Thrones" was broadcast, the first two episodes of the eighth season are intended to evoke the audience’s memory of the characters in the play. There are more dialogue dramas than action dramas. "The important thing is to let the audience understand the emotional origin of each character. "Nuttel commented: "The old grudge has not disappeared, and the new hatred has increased. There is tension in the air. "
"A major challenge we face is that almost all the leading actors are gathered together. "Franco said: "Some characters have never appeared in the same frame before. We have to shoot them all from multiple angles while maintaining the same lighting-our actions must be as fast as possible and the efficiency must be as high as possible." /p>
During the day, a meeting is being held in the hall of Winterfell. Jon and Tyrion are trying to persuade the factions to put aside their differences. Like many interior scenes, the hall scenes were shot in the LinenMill studio in Bainbridge. The heads of all races sat at the front table, while others squeezed on the benches of the dining table. "We used one swing arm and three mobile cameras," Franco said. "IWe use a telephoto lens to arrange the faces of the characters neatly in the frame, and then zoom in to a tighter scene. Nuter prefers a very fast pace of work and the use of multiple cameras. "
"We installed flame light rods in the fireplace, and placed several 300-watt LowelRifa soft light boxes nearby, all connected to low-frequency scintillators. "Tom Gates, the lighting engineer, said. From the first episode to the last episode of the show, he has been working on the "Game of Thrones" crew. "We have placed LiteGear's LiteM-ats LED lights on the ground, from bottom to bottom. Light up the actors and benches. It is better to use book-style lighting when shooting close-up shots-if the space is large enough, we will use 10K or 20K lamps, with a 12-foot length and width of fine cotton reflective cloth and full-range silent soft light cloth. If the space is small, we will use two to three beltsThe soft light box of 1K lamp will also be equipped with reflective cloth and full-range silent soft light cloth. We always create contrast for the character's face-low-key enveloping main light, and negative auxiliary light on the other side. ”
In the first episode, there is also a short insertion scene. Among them, Jon and Daenerys ride a dragon through the snowy In forests and valleys. Shooting scenes of flying dragons requires a sophisticated visual effects device, which combines a dynamic control system and a Sydercam camera suspension motion device.
Live actor flying the dragon and flying dragon The fire-breathing scenes were shot using dynamicsControl Technology. These shots were shot in Studio 4 of the Paint Hall (PaintHall) in the Titanic District of Belfast. This studio is often called the Titanic Studio, because it was once the seat of the Harland and Wolfe shipyards. The well-known and tragic end of the Titanic ship was built here-"The Warehouse" The word "Cell" reminds people of the name of that era. In addition to the four warehouses, two brand new studios were built.
The dynamic control photography work of the eighth season is mainly in charge of Gregory Middleton-he is also the main photography director of the six episodes in the fifth to seventh seasons of the Quanyou series . BVK (German Cinematographers Association) member Anette Haellmigk, BSC member Kate Reid, ISC (Irish Cinematographers Association) member P.J. Dillon (P.J.Dillon) are also responsible for some of the dynamic control and shooting scenes of flying dragon flames in the eighth season. Haymike is the director of photography with the largest number of episodes, and he is also responsible for handling part of the dynamic control photography in the seventh season. Dillon is the director of photography for certain episodes in the second, sixth and seventh seasons.
Franco and Nuter collaborated to film the second episode of "Knights of the Seven Kingdoms". In this episode, the castle is intensively prepared for battle inside and outside. Dozens of people gather at the desk in the library, facing the winter The city map plans a challenge strategy. "I used a small rocker arm. The camera first took pictures from the back of the room, with a chandelier as the foreground. When everyone got closer to study the map, the lens stretched forward to shoot." Camera B handheld David · Morgan (David Morgen) recalled the shooting of the scene in the LinenMill studio, and said: “Then we cutA series of over-the-shoulder shots were taken. ”
Nutl and the actors did not have much opportunity to rehearse before shooting. "I have time to mark on the ground so that we can speed up our work. Rhythm. "Director Nuttel said, "Franco will take photos to record the camera position and angle. He is an extremely good director of photography. His grasp of indoor lighting reminds me of Connie Hall (Conrad Hall, ASC). He can take you where you want to go in a dramatic way. local. ”
The exterior scene of Winterfell was taken at a castle in Toome, a small town in Northern Ireland. The first season was actually in the real location of Ward Castle It was filmed, but at the end of the shooting, the crew obviously needed to find a new location and customize the actual scene for the show. The art director of the first three seasons of the show, Gemma Jackson, was in two castles-Ward Castle and A palace in Scotland-based on the design of the set. When "Game of Thrones" premiered, no one expected the show to be so popular, and no one expected the need to expand so many sets. In the fourth to the fourth seasons. At the request of the art director Deborah Riley (Deborah Riley) of the eight seasons, the area of Winterfell City has more than doubled. Just for the filming of the eighth season, she added a city gate set, a courtyard that is 225 feet long and 150 feet wide and can be used for filming outdoor scenes, an armory, and a strong castle wall.
"We expanded the set to prepare for the shooting of the third episode of the battle scene." Riley explained: "For example, the purpose of designing the library is to shoot Alija Stark (Mai Xi ·Williams) in the library room is chased by the night king's "exotic ghosts". We must ensure that the space is large enough to meet the requirements of shooting action scenes. "Winter City is built on the field, but some The ground is too damp and soft, so several layers of gravel and soil are needed to reinforce it so that a new setting can be built up.
The third episode of "Long Night" is undoubtedly the most daunting and labor-intensive episode of the whole series. The episode was directed by Wagner as the director of photography and Sapusnik as the director. A total of 7Five days of shooting, except for the weekend, is the 55 nights of the crew. From the end of January to April, no matter if it is icy, snowy or violent, the filming never stops. The third episode was filmed with painstaking effort, and in contrast, in the world of the story, everything happened overnight.
"Miguel and I have broken down the schedule and know very well what we should shoot each day." Wagner said: "There is no room for concessions in the shooting schedule, but the visual preview helped us. We were doing this a few months before the shooting started."
The visual preview was created by The TProduced by hird Floor company. The working members include visual effects director Joe Bauer (JoeBauer), visual effects producer Steve Kull-back (Steve Kull-back) and all core departments of the company. TheThirdFloor team members come from Los Angeles or London, including Eric Carney, Michelle Blok, KayaJabar and PatGehlen. They work in the filming office in Belfast.
Sapbosnik and Wagner planned everything for the division of the four cameras, and Wagner was responsible for operating the fourth camera. There are surprisingly many Libra electronic heads used in the third episode. There are five to six Libra, several of which are mounted on the rocker. "I participateSome of the world’s largest filming work, but they only use two or three Libra electronic control heads. "Savage said: "But we used a total of nine stations when we filmed the fifth episode! (distributed in various photography teams)"
The Libra electronic control head and other equipment are provided by CameraRevolution in London. The lighting is provided by Panalux. Except for AlphaGrip and the equipment director Garrett's own, other equipment and equipment are provided by ArriRental in London and BalloHire, HSSHire and BeattieCraneHire in Belfast. ArriRental The company also provided a complete set of camera equipment and other equipment.
"We installed four 20-foot long and wideThe softbox, which rises to a height of 130 feet, is used as a moonlight to enhance the atmosphere. "For the lighting arranged in the third episode, Wagner explained: "Each softbox has 60 built-in ArriSkyPanel lights. Generally speaking, we will spread large silk cloth in the soft box, but this time we abandoned this practice. Over the 55 nights of shooting, the wind in Northern Ireland has been unpredictable. And I know we have to face a lot of bad weather-so we made a waterproof protective cover for each SkyPanel in each softbox, and matched the soft light cloth inside the waterproof cover. In this way, the light box can continue to work for a long time even in strong winds. "
There is a soft light box hanging on the cantilever-even though the crane cantilever is very heavy, the wind is still too strong, so the equipment must be firmly fixed on the ground. "We hooked the bottom of the crane to the cement block. Cement blocks have to be buried in the ground. "GatesRecalls: "But sometimes the wind at night is too big and we can't use these devices at all."
"We also set up lights outside of the real scene," Wagner said : "A quarter-sized Wendy light set is placed on the tower and the outer city wall. This is for preparation when the softbox cannot be used due to high winds."
In addition, three Or four groups of cantilevers also hung full-size Wendy moments, matched with HalfGrid half-gear soft light cloth, they act as the side light and backlight of the scene. "At the beginning of the night, it was peaceful and quiet, and the cold blue moonlight enveloped the sky." Wagner said: "We set the SkyPanel to steel cyan, and matched the Wendy lamp with the light color of the SkyPanel through the filter paper." /p>
Scissor lifts are easy to move and can be parked anywhere-they are arranged on the setAround, responsible for lifting a quarter-size Wendy light group. Talking about the filter paper they use, Gates said that the steel blue is used to simulate moonlight, FullCTS is used to simulate firelight, and FullCTO is used to simulate the light color of torches.
"Because there are too many actors, extras, stunts, and horses, and the area of the set is too large, I chose to use a large light source at a distance." Wagner said: "It makes shooting with four cameras at the same time easier. Processing For more detailed shots, I will bring the smaller light source closer to the actors. I will adjust the WeThe soft light effect of ndy lamp group. "Gates added: "In order to achieve the maximum soft light effect, many soft light cloths are full-speed silent cloth. But we sometimes use a mix of 1/4-speed and half-speed silent fabrics to make the light harder, which works well in many sets. "Wagner recalled: "We placed a total of about 30 sets of Wendy lamp moments in different places. "
We spent four weeks setting the scene for this battle-laying cables, raising the cantilever, and arranging lighting. "In the 42 years of business, this is the largest set I have ever seen. "Gates said.
When asked about the audience’s reaction to the show’s lighting, Wagner said: "In addition to the media and online interpretations in recent weeks-broadcast signals, TV calibration and The number of ambient lights in the room-these are the reasons. However, for the darkness of the third episode, the most important thing I want to convey is that this is a creative move, To focus on what we can’t see. I hope to narrate in the dark in an artistic way-reducing light is as important as increasing light-thereby enhancing the emotional power of this episode. "
While the allied forces guarding Winterfell are preparing closely for battle at the last minute, there is a strange silence in the air—and obvious anxiety and ominous signs. These scenes are based on tradition. With the help of a mobile camera, the camera moves smoothly. However, the scene at the beginning of the battle looks more like a handheld photography style. "B-camera David Morgan’s skill in controlling the telephoto lens is amazing. . "Wagner said: "He can capture things that ordinary people can't catch with a telephoto lens, especially in such a magnificent scene, with such a huge crowd and so many movements. The C-machine handhelds are Will Waring and John Ferguson (JohnFerg)u-son). "The scene depicting the army of death straddling the fire trenches near Winterfell, climbing up the city wall, and attacking the castle was taken with a 24-290mm Optimo zoom lens. The lens was used in turn with a camera mounted on a mobile camcorder or a tripod. Wagner explained.
For his own telephoto lens, Morgan recalled: “The camera is mounted on a mobile camera. I used an OConnor gimbal and reduced the hydraulic damping so that the camera moved The smoothness is reduced, and it looks like a handheld camera. We used the telephoto end of the zoom lens to take close-up shots, and my co-focuser, Marc Atherfold, still performed very well with the lens aperture open. "
At the same time, the SXTPlus camera mounted on the MovieBird rockerEquipped with a 17-80mm Optimo zoom lens, which is usually the standard match for shooting the show. The handheld camera is equipped with a zoom lens with a shorter focal length and lighter weight-either a 15-40mm lens or a 28-76mm lens.
"For our focus members, it was particularly difficult to shoot the third episode." Wagner said: "All scenes were shot at night with a zoom lens. During the shooting of this entire episode, I Set the aperture to T2.81⁄2 or T4-almost close to full open. All the first assistants are excellent. I especially want to mention my assistant Borja Berrostegui- eta), he is responsible for the focus of the fourth camera. I often put into work at the last minute, so he has almost no time to react. Other focus members include Jamie Phillips (JamiePhillips), Mark Arthur Fuld in charge of the B plane and Sam Donaghy-Bell in charge of the C plane (SamDonaghy-Bell). "
When filming the horror scene of Alija being chased by ghosts in the corridors of the Winterfell Library, the crew used a Maxima stabilizer, which was provided by CameraRevolution. "It is equivalent. It is a three-axis stable electronic control head, but it is handheld. Savage explained: "Maxima has two concentric circles, and the AlexaMini camera is in the center. Single or double operation is possible. This device can be controlled remotely, and I can operate it with the handwheel while sitting in front of the monitor. If it is operated by a single person, it will be held by Andy Woodcock, the person in charge of the A-camera. He knows the equipment very well, and I can talk to him while moving the equipmentflow. ”
Maxima is usually operated by a single person, and is fixed to the support vest worn by Woodcock. He operates the device with a pair of spring arms to assist him. Role. The same is true when filming the opening scene of the third episode. Samwell Tully (John Bradley) took his weapon and walked out of the armory to the open courtyard-this scene Maxima followed him until he met Tyrion on the road, at which time the camera also shot Tyrion into the lens. Bran as the bait of the Night King (played by Vladmir Foldik) Stark (Isaac Hempstead(White) When passing Tyrion in a wheelchair, this smooth follow shot is completed. Woodcock is usually assisted by Maixma’s technician Clive Williams when operating this equipment. Williams said: "I am responsible for guiding and instructing Andy to move backwards. There are two auxiliary handles behind the vest he wears. Andy holds the device and is responsible for the more difficult parts of the shooting together with Sean."
However, the scene where Alia was chased in the hallway was "actually shot by the two of us running fast backwards together," Woodcock said: "In this case, I will take off my vest. And Clive alone is carrying equipment."
Daenerys’s only remaining two dragons--and the one under the control of the Night King--are in the battle between the living and the dead. Brave warrior. The flying dragon related scenes contain many elements: special effects of flying dragon, Daenerys dynamicsControl the camera lens, the scene where Jon and the night king control the dragon, use real fire to simulate the flames of a flying dragon, close-up shots of actors, extras and war horses in the green screen, and interactive lighting that simulates the effect of flames.
After Tumei finished filming the scenes of Winterfell City, the crew moved to the Ma-gheramorne Quarry. This is an abandoned limestone quarry where the crew filmed night scenes with a green screen. "We want to use the camera as much as possible for real shots," the director of photography Wagner added. The crew must be in other suitable locations outside Winterfell.Shooting, because the story requires "a huge space to accommodate 60 galloping horses. We placed a huge L-shaped green screen in the quarry, 150 feet wide and 450 feet long. We need such a large space for The horse runs, and also reserves space for the later reproduction of crowd images."
TheThirdFloor company used visual previews and parameter charts to list the general requirements for the set, such as the area and the shape of the large green screen. TheThirdFloor company revealed that its staff “spent more than two weeks to simulate the horse running and estimate the relevant parameters.” The horses are provided and trained by the horse trainer Camilla Naprous, the family business TheDevil'sHorseman is one of the leading horse suppliers in the European film industry.
At the Maglama quarry, "IWe have also completed a lot of interactive lighting special effects," Wagner said: "We used SkyPanel light sets to light the green screen and installed 40 20K lights on the scaffolding. We also placed 10 to 12 quarter-size Wendy light moments on the large platform next to the green screen, arranged up to 100 feet long. When shooting a certain scene, I will instruct 1 set of lights to turn on-then 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., just like a chain lighting game. Halfway through—for example, when 5 sets of Wendy lights are on—I let 1 set of lights go out. Then the 2 sets of lights went out, like a flying dragon passing by. "
These scenes were shot in two parts-one is a close-up shot of the face, and the other is a real fire shot without an actor present. In one shot, the flying dragon Over the head of James Lannister (Nicola Coster Waldau)Top, a fireball suddenly exploded in the background. For this scene, Wagner said: "The camera is aimed at the green screen, and James in the foreground is fighting. After the order is given, the Wendy lights will go out. When James looks up and sees the flying dragon passing by, it will produce fire from left to right. The effect that surrounds him. The firelight effect was completed by the real-time special effects director Sam Conway and his team in the studio."
The director of photography Wagner praised the staff: "Person 400 and 60 After the horse stomped on the ground for a day, two feet of silt accumulated on the ground. The set and art teams came every day to fill the mud pits on the ground with gravel, and rebuilt the set before we returned that night. The Buxue group also Come every day to fill up the potholes."
"Tom Gates is an incredible lighting engineer," Wagner said: "He always prepares everything for us. In a certain season of shooting, He cooperates with various photography directors to cater to our needs. He is cute and professional at work. ”
Wagner said: "The other highlight of the third episode was completed in the studio. "Indeed, in the studio of the Titanic Studio, work is in full swing-Sapusnik and Wagner directed the first film crew; producer Chris Newman directed the second film crew, and BSC member Kate Reid directed The third group. Middleton directed the dynamic control photography in Studio 4. "I interspersed work between these groups. "Wagner said: "I asked Kate to guide the second group because Miguel will loseResponsible for more shooting for the third episode. And he has to prepare for the fifth episode. "
"The work of the studio is quite straightforward. "Wagner added: "We are shooting scenes that are difficult to shoot in real locations due to weather and safety issues. The entire studio was completely darkened by us. The art team designed a ground that matches the exterior scene of Winterfell. Even though we shot very dark, the ground was too dark to see. "
"We tried to photograph all the elements, including smoke, snow and flames, in real locations. "Wagner said: "But sometimes we can't do it, because the weather was bad, we had to make up those shots in the studio. "
In a certain studio, the crew set up a part of the city wall, while shooting melee shots. In the second studio, an 80-foot-long trench was built, because it took close-up shots of the flames. Safer thanSuch as shooting a scene where a stuntman is on fire. The trenches were built on a high platform, and Conway and his team could work under the platform.
In order to maintain the continuity of lighting, the directors of photography used many of the same equipment in the studio as those used in the real scene.
A small part of the green screen photography was actually shot by Newman's second crew in Winter City. "After we finish the work at night, I will keep my lighting installation intact, and when Newman arrives the next night, I can shoot under the same lighting environment." Wagner said: "They will bring one or two. A green screen 20 feet long and wide, and then shots of crowds fighting for image reproduction.” At the same time, the main camera crew will move to another part of Winterfell for shooting.
Talking about the work of the crew, Franco and Wagner said that being able to shoot "Game of Thrones" is not only because of how exciting it is, but alsoIt is an honor for them to participate in this work. "All the cast and crew are working hard." Franco said: "I have almost never felt such a wonderful atmosphere."
Arri Alexa SXT Plus camera, Alexa Mini camera;
Red Epic-M Dragon camera
Cooke S4/i lens
Angénieux Optimo lens
Vantage Film Hawk V series lens
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