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The source of the Eastern and Western Tumed Ministry
(AD 1206), Genghis Khan established the Mongolian Khanate. Around (1212), the Mongolian Khanate The power gradually expanded to the western part of Liaoning. From then on and during the entire Yuan Dynasty for more than 150 years, the Mongols moved from the north to the south of the desert to the south, and settled or operated in the Chaoyang area in the form of military garrison and civilian garrison. "Record: Around 1220, Genghis Khan designated the area of western Liaoning as the fief of the ancient platform of Bieli, his half-brother. The ancient platform of Bieli was named Guangning King (now Beizhen) to guard this place, and the descendants of the ancient platform of Bieli succeeded to the throne here. For many years, those Mongolian soldiers and civilians who stayed in the fief gradually adapted to the local social and economic life and became local residents.
MingIn the first year of Hongwu (1368 AD), the Yuan Dynasty died, and the power of the Mongolian feudal rulers retreated to the grassland, which was called Beiyuan in history. Since then, the Ming Dynasty and the Northern Yuan (Mongolia) regimes have appeared on the old territory of the Yuan Dynasty. This political situation is the same as the two Southern and Northern Dynasties in the 4th to 7th centuries and the 10th to 13th centuries in the history of our country, forming the third Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Mongols who lived or lived in the Chaoyang area continued to live in the form of remnants, inhabitants, and Sanwei people.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the Tumote Mongolian, Mengoljin Mongolian and Harqin Mongolian descended from the Mongolian grasslands to the south, nomadic and grazing, and finally Settled in western Liaoning. The Qing Dynasty implemented the alliance and banner system in Mongolian areas. The Five Banners of Zhuosuo Tumeng (namely, the second banner of Tumote Left and Right and the third banner of Kalaqin Left, Middle and Right).
1. The source of the Tumote Ministry
Tumote, the old Mongolian Ministry. AD Before 1383, the entire Mongolia split into two major parts, Eastern Mongolia represented by Dahan and Taishi Alutai, and Western Mongolia represented by Mahamu, Taiping, and Batu Polo. The interior of Eastern Mongolia is divided into six major parts. The tribal groups have two wings on the left and right, and each wing is composed of three tribal groups. On the eve of the unification of the Mongolian ministries in Yanhan, the composition of the three right-wing tribal groups is Tumote, Ordos, and Yongsheb. According to the record: "Tume "Special" first appeared as a tribal name in the Wukketuhan era (the early years of Ming Chenghua, the middle of the fifteenth century). After the defeat of the Mongolian Khanate regime in the Central Plains, the Mongolian tribes were active on the Mongolian steppes again. Mongolian Khanate,Or called "60,000 households in Mongolia", Tumote is one of 10,000 households.
In the Ming Dynasty, there were nomadic people in the Tumote Wanhu area around Ulanchabu in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. After Dayan Khan's death in 1517 AD, the place where Tumote tens of thousands of households lived as a herd was occupied by his grandchildren. When Dayan Khan’s grandson Alatan Khan (the 17th generation descendant of Genghis Khan) ruled the right-wing Tumet’s Wanhu, his power expanded rapidly. Maintained in-law relationship with the Wuliangha tribe in the east wing. In the political, economic and military aspects, the friendship and mutual assistance with the Ulyangha tribe were strengthened, so the Tumed people were able to emigrate in large numbers and migrated to the territory of the Ulyangha tribe. It also maintains a good relationship with the Mongolians who are nomadic in the Hetao area on its west side. After the Alatan Khan unified western Mongolia, starting from the interests of the grasslands, starting from the 20th year of Jiajing (1541), he had repeatedly asked the Ming court for mutual trade.The self-proclaimed Ming Ting refused. In addition, the Mongolian grasslands are burned, nested, and economic blockade policies are adopted every year. Alatan Khan was forced to go to war. Starting in 1550 AD, Alatan Khan used troops to force the Ming court to trade. After 20 years of war, in the fourth year of Longqing (1570), the war was finally stopped under the conditions of the Ming court to grant mutual trade. The following year, the Ming court named Alatan Khan the king of Shunyi, and his residence was called "Guihua City".
But his son Xin Ai Huang Taiji is not satisfied with his father Alatan Khan’s conservative situation of sticking to the "desert". According to the "Wanli Wugong Record": "Xin Ai Huang Taiji had conflicts with his father in political views, so he had nowhere to be found in the clouds in Jiajing and Fu Xu in the clouds. Between the ancient north and the Chaohe River, Xiao Ranruo has come to the fore." Xin Ai Huang Taiji brought his descendants and his tribes to the border of Xuanfu, Monolith, JizhouIn the area, weeds and grasses moved to graze, and various camps were established. One of them was called Wu'aiying. The location of Wu'aiying was Mantaoer (now Fengning County, Hebei Province).
Alatan Khan died in the 9th year of Ming Chengli (1581), and his eldest son Xin Ai Huang Taiji inherited the throne of Shunyi and returned to Huacheng from Mantao. The territory of U'aiying in the east is controlled by his son Gartu. Gartu died in the forty-third year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1615), and Wu'aiying was led by his son Omubu Chuhuer. In the Chuhuer period of Ombu, another "Tumo Special Department" was established in Wuaiying. This was the predecessor of Dong Tumote.
In 1621 AD, the Chahar tribe moved westward, and Omubu Chuhuer of the Tumote tribe joined other tribes to participate in the resistance and was defeated by Zhaocheng. At this time, it was guarded at Wuaiying (The eastern Tumote department near today's Fengning County, Hebei Province also ran eastward in shock. However, the current Kalaqin Tribe was originally the base of Doyanwei, and the remnants of the Hara Shen Camp, which joined forces with the Tumd Tribe to resist the Chahar Tribe, also defected here. Therefore, the Tumd Tribe was in full force. I couldn't stay here any longer, so I flocked to the more east of the left and right banners of Jintumote. Tumote Left Banner (Fuxin), Tumote Right Banner (Chaoyang, Beipiao).
The Mongolian "Huining Temple Stone Tablet" in Xiafu Mongolian Township, Beipiao City today records: "For the prosperity and happiness of mankind, the descendant of Genghis Khan, the reincarnated Golden Buddha The third grandson of Alatan Khan, Wembchao Huri (also translated as Ombu Chuhuer) came from Hohhot’s Tumed Ministry to build a glazed tile-roof temple and model the Buddha. The ruler Wemb Chaohuri (Omu Buchuhuer)’s fourth-generation grandson Hamugabayas Gulangtu, inIn the third year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1738), a square hall was built near his residence, and Buddha statues were built in the east and west wing temples.” This inscription record fully confirms that the Mongols of the Eastern Tumed family had learned from the Western Tumed. The history of the migration.
Tumote Zuoyiqi Wangfu
2. The left and right wings of the East Tumote Ministry
Why is the Mongolian Lejin Ministry called the Left Wing of the Tumote Ministry? This question can only be described in history.
In the thirteenth year of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1500), the Mongolian Lejin was stationed in the Hetao area. In the 14th year of the Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (1586), Alatan Khanzixin Aihuangtaiji led the Mongolian Lejin tribe to move outside the Xuanfu. In the same year, his son Dalike married the Mongolian Lejin daughter as his wife. In the 30th year of the Ming Dynasty (1602), the Mongolian Lejin tribe and Xinai Huangtaijizhi Sun Omubu Chuhuer lived together in Wafanggou outside Longmenkou. In the 1720s, he moved eastward with his subordinates to Chaoyang and Fuxin to settle in Chaoyang area. Ombu ChuhuerThe Tumote Ministry is the right wing, and the Mongolian Lejin Ministry that moved with the Tumote Ministry to settle in Fuxin is the left wing of the Tumote Ministry.
In the Qing Dynasty, in order to distinguish East and West Tumed, Tumed, who lived in Hohhot (Guihua City), was called “Guihua City Tumed”; The eastern Tumet, which uses Xifengkou as the tribute road, is called "Xifengkou Tumet". The Xifengkou Tumet is divided into two wings, with different surnames and the same pastoral. Emperor Gaozong Hongli of the Qing dynasty was served by Rehe Yushengjing (Shenyang), via Tumote Zhasak Darhanbele Banner (Tumote Zuoqi), and wrote a poem for the Tumote tribe: "The tribe name is alien At the same time, the canine teeth are divided into different titles, the executives are all pious and respectful, and the emperor has been resting for a hundred years. It is difficult for me to give up my heart." The Tumed Ministry and the Mongolia Lejin Ministry are in the same household and nomadic together. , Living in the same area, have an inseparable relationship. Moved from the Hetao area to the border of Xuanfu, And there is a marriage relationship at the same time. They moved from Xuan Mansion to Chaoyang and Fuxin areas together, where they lived together as animal husbandry. Therefore, the Tumote tribe and the Mongolia Lejin tribe had a deep friendship between each other. Mongol Lejin, the first Zazak Shanba of the Tumote Left Banner and the first Zazak Ombu Chuhuer of the Tumote Right Banner, have a multi-layered marriage relationship. The Tumote Left and Right Wing Banner, from 1637 (the tenth year of Chongzhen in Ming Dynasty and the second year of Chongde of Qing Dynasty) to 1930 (the 19th year of the Republic of China), has been called the Tumote Left and Right Wing Banner for 293 years. After Japan invaded and occupied Northeast China in 1931, the three northeastern provinces were changed to "Manchukuo", and Pu Yi, the last emperor who abdicated by the Qing Dynasty, became the puppet emperor of Manchukuo. In the 7th year of the Puppet Manchukuo (1940), Beipiao in the Tumote Right Banner was divided into the Tumote Middle Banner, and Qinbudorji served as the head of the Tumote Middle Banner and the four brothers of Qinbudorji. Yinwuliji (Four Buddhas) served as the head of the Tumed Right Banner (Chaoyang). Like this, Tumed formed the left, center and right flags. On a larger scale, the Mongolians who live in Chaoyang, Beipiao, and Fuxin are called Dongtumote, and the Mongolians who live in Hohhot (Guihua City) are called Xitumote. Therefore, the Mongols in Dongtumote often say: "Our hometown is in Guihua City."
The first Zha of Tumote Zuoyi BannerSakshanba
3. The grazing range of the East Tumed Ministry
The animal husbandry is ancient Mongolia The main source of income for the ethnic people, and the grassland pasture is the foundation of its development. The Mongolian people raise livestock, mainly horses, cattle and sheep, while hunting. Because the Mongolians themselves are a nomadic people, the fertile soil of the northern part of the Saibei has become Mongolian pastures. In the Mongolian living area of the Tumote tribe, because the Mongolian and Han people live together, the wasteland is constantly cultivated, and then it has moved towards a semi-agricultural, semi-pastoral, farming and pastoral economy.
In the Qing Dynasty, the Tumote Ministry who moved to the "Tumote" place, its grazing scope and general situation, according to "The Biography of the Kings of the Hui Ministry of the Outer Han Mongolia" Record: "The Tohmed Department, inOutside the mouth of Xifeng, thousands of miles to the capital. Four hundred and sixty miles from east to west, and three hundred and ten miles from north to south. To the east, Yangshimu (Yangximu is in Zhangwu County, Liaoning Province); to the west is Kalaqin; to the south is Shengjing border wall (willow side); to the north is Kalkayi and Aohan. Tumote is divided into two wings, the opposite sex and the same shepherd. The main leftist is the descendant of Yuan Chen Zilama (Zhe Le Mi). It was passed down from the thirteenth generation of Zilama, Zhishanba, and Kalaqin are close families. The main rightists are the descendants of Yuan Taizu. From the nineteenth generation of Yuan Taizu to Chuhuer, Omubu, he gave birth to a son Gumu, and is a close family with the naturalized city of Tumed.
The above-mentioned appearance of the two wings of Tumote was formed after the feudal lord of Tumote in the third year of Jin Tiancong (1629) "all lead the people to return" Huang Taiji . This grazing land includes the entire territory of Chaoyang County, Beipiao City and Fuxin Mongolian Autonomous County in western Liaoning. The Mongols in this areaThe descendants of Chaoyang, Beipiao and Fuxin constitute the Mongolians.
Fourth, the establishment of the league flag system
In the Qing Dynasty, the Mengqi rule was implemented in the Mongolian areas, and the Mengqi system was also implemented in the Mongolian areas in western Liaoning. In the previous article, we have talked about the five banners under the jurisdiction of Zhuo Suotuo League, namely the second banner of Tumote Left and Right and the third banner of Kalaqin Left, Middle and Right. In the early Qing Dynasty, due to the Mongolian princes and nobles of various banners, the Han people were continuously recruited to cultivate land. The Han people in some areas within the Guan went out to make a living, and the Qing government also implemented the policy of "borrowing land to support the people." Therefore, a large number of Han people flowed into the Mongolian pastoral areas in western Liaoning and settled down. The Qing government divided Mongolia and Han and established three towers in Chaoyang.Manage the Han people in Chaoyang, Beipiao and Fuxin areas. The Mongolian nationality is still under the jurisdiction of various banners.
The organizational relationship of the alliance and flag system. "League" is the union organization of the flag, formed by combining the flags, but it is not a first-level administrative agency, but only the supervision organization of the court over the flags within the league. Each Zhasak (banner leader) meets on a regular basis and is presided over by the leader to review and approve matters such as the adaptation of each bannerman and its subordinate "zuo". The usual armed conditions of the bannermen will also be reviewed in an alliance. During the war, the leader of the confederate led the soldiers on the march. The leader of the league has no right to interfere in the political affairs of the flags or issue government orders. Only when there are difficult civil and criminal cases in each banner, they will be tried with Zasak (the banner chief).
"Qing" is the Qing government based on the Eight Banners system, based on Mongolia’s original social governance system, after adjusting or enclosing pastoral landIt is a unit that the Qing government ruled the Mongolian area with a basic military and political integration. The banner Zhasak (the banner leader) was selected by the Qing government from the Mongolian princes and nobles (wang, beile, bezi, Taiji, and Tabunang), and was the leader of the banner. Usually in charge of Yiqi's administrative, judicial, and taxation affairs. In wartime, enlist a banner of troops to join the war. Zhasak (banner commander) has two assistants for Taiji to assist Zazak (banner) to manage the flag affairs; under the assistant Zhasak (banner) is set up to manage Zhangjing, responsible for handling and supervising the implementation of the entire banner's government orders, military affairs and laws Implementation status: Under the management of Zhangjing, there is Meilin, which is divided into Guanqi, Printing and Guanbing Meilin. There are several participants under Meilin. In addition, there are several pen-and-post styles in the flag office for clerical duties.
There are a number of "zuo" below the flag (zuo or arrow, Mongolian called "sumu"). Before the middle of the Qing Dynasty, every 150 ding could be compiled as one Zuo, Ding ZengzuoAlso increased. Each team has a leader or arrow head, and is in charge of a team. By the order of the flag Zhasak (the leader of the flag), the owner was appraised, a tax was levied, the flag was enlisted for service and troops, civil disputes were resolved, guards were also sent to the palace, and letters were passed on. Adult men in the flag are subject to trial. It is generally stipulated that from 18 to 60 years old is a Dingkou, which is reviewed and compiled annually. In addition to being a lama, a temple and a noble family, the Mongolian Dingkou must be compiled into the manual. For every 150 Ding, 50 Dings are selected as soldiers, and Yu Bai Ding is the Attached Ding, which is a reserve soldier, who works in peacetime and practice martial arts, and the candidates serve as soldiers.
V. Mongolian Feudal Hierarchy
In the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulersControl and use the power of the Mongolian feudal masters. The mongolian feudal masters who belonged to them were given knighthoods according to their allegiance and merits. They were awarded different titles such as prince, county king, baylor, shellfish, town gong, and auxiliary duke, etc., and were hereditary. , According to legend.
There are Taiji and Tabunang among the noble class. Taiji’s Mongolian language was corrupted from the Chinese "Prince". The extension of its righteousness has been equivalent to the royal family. The Genghis Khan family Peerzhijin is the golden family. The males of this family inherited the title of Taiji and became the noble class. Taiwan Kyrgyzstan is divided into first, second, third and fourth grades (first and second grades are red tops, and third and fourth grades are blue tops). Tabunang, the Chinese translation is 驸马. Uliangha's Zirama (Zhe Le Mi) was a hero of Genghis Khan, and his son was a consort. Genghis Khan gave his descendants the title of hereditary Tabunang and became a Mongolian nobleman with privileges. Tabu Nang is divided into one and two, Three, four, etc.
The commoner class is called Haruyut (Mongolian), Chinese translation is Li Min. Also known as Yagen Arite (Mongolian), it is translated into Chinese as a soldier, has the obligation to serve as a soldier, serve in military service, pay taxes, and is also eligible for promotion.
The subordinate class is called subordinate, that is, the freedmen who are subordinate, and are lower than the common people. There are princes and temples. There are Mongolians who follow the flag under the prince. They are craftsmen and entertainers who migrated from other places. There is also Tuusge (Mongolian) under the prince, which is translated into Zhuanghu in Chinese; Zhuleqin (Mongolian), which is translated into the subordinate or mausoleum under the tomb in Chinese; Darihanbaole (Mongolian), which is translated into Chinese Freed slaves. They are servants, entertainers, craftsmen, and female servants from the princesses of the Qing Dynasty who married princes, nobles, and officials.The temple's subordinates are the Mongolians who went to the temple with the banner, and the craftsmen and entertainers recruited from other places when the temple was built. They were unwilling to return to their places of origin. They defected to the temple and settled down and became the subordinates of the temple. They have to pay tribute to the temple and perform hard labor every year. The Gerenbauer (Mongolian) of the slave class, the Chinese translation of "domestic slaves", has been slaves for generations and is the bottom of the society.
Sixth, the flag Zhasak lineage
1. Tumote Right Banner (Chaoyang, Beipiao) Zhasake (chief) lineage:
The first Zhasake O Mubchuhuer, Hou Jin TiancongNine years (1635) seal. Died the same year.
The second Zazak Omubu Chuhuer Gumu attacked, and he was the king of Jinzhen in the fifth year of Shunzhi (1648). In the second year of Kangxi (1663), Jingushanbeizi.
The third Zhasakgumu's seventh son, Gunjiszabu, attacked Gushanbezi in the thirteenth year of Kangxi (1674).
The fourth Zazakgumu, the sixth son Raszab, attacked Gushanbeizi in the 30th year of Kangxi (1691).
The fifth Zhasakras Zhabu eldest son, Bandi, attacked Gushan Beizi in the 37th year of Kangxi (1698).
The sixth Zazakbandi’s eldest son, Hamugabayas Hulangtu, attacked Gushan Beizi in the forty-ninth year of Kangxi (1710).
The eighth Zazak Chuizhabu second son Sebutengdongluobu, Xi Gushan Beizi in the 39th year of Qianlong (1774)
The ninth Zazak Chuizabu three son Se Buteng Lashi, the 55th year of Qianlong (1790) attacked Gushan Beizi.
The tenth Zhasak Hamu Gabayas Hulangtu, the ninth son of Pengsok, was married, and he was attacked in the 57th year of Qianlong (1792) Shanbei.
Mani Badala, the fourth son of the eleventh Zhasak Punsouk, and the fourth son of Jiaqing (1799), attacked Gushan Beizi. In the seventh year of Jiaqing and the fourth daughter of Jiaqing, Qingjing The princess gets married and appreciates the rank of the king of the county.
The twelfth Zhasak Manidara eldest son Deleger Selen, the thirteenth year of Daoguang (1833) After attacking Gushan Beizi, he was promoted to Baylor for military affairs with Seng Gelinqin and was appointed as the Minister of Military Parade.
The thirteenth Zasak Delegg Seleng's eldest son Suotnamu Sedeng, in the 7th year of Xianfeng (1857), attacked Gushan Beizi.
The 14th Zasak Suotnamuse The son of Deng Buzabu,In the sixth year of Guangxu (1880), Gushan Beizi was attacked.
The fifteenth Zhasak stick, the fifth son, Qin Budorji, attacked Gushan Beizi in the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930). In the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), Qin Budorji was named the Puppet Manchurian Emperor Pu Yi as the Prince of Heshuo, and he was appointed the head of the Tumed Right Banner. In the twenty-ninth year of the Republic of China (1940), the "Puppet Manchukuo" established the Tumote Middle Banner (Beipiao), and Qinbu Duoerji served as the banner leader. Baoyinwuliji (Four Buddha), the fourth brother of Qinbu Duoerji, was appointed as the flag leader of Tumote Right Banner (Chaoyang).
2. Tumote Zuoqi (Fuxin) Zhasak (banner long) lineage:
The first Zasak Shanpa, Tiancong nine years (1635 years) cover. In the first year of Chongde (1636), he was promoted to Dalhan Town, and the edict was hereditary.
The second Zhasak Shanba Zoriketu, awarded Dorodal Hambell in the first year of Kangxi (1662), hereditary replacement.
The third eldest son of Zasak Zoriktu, Zhaotu, the second assaulted Lord Dorodarhambell.
Erdemutu, the third son of the fourth Zazak Zhaotu, attacked Lord Dorodarhambell three times. He is still the county lord, granting Duoluo attached.
Mani, the eldest son of Zasak Erdemutu, is the fifth eldest son of Lord Dorodarhambell.
Alabdan, the eldest son of the sixth Zhasakmani, attacked Lord Dorodarhambelle five times. You are still the princess, and he is attached with a master. In the eleventh year of Yongzheng (1734), he served as the leader of the Zhuo Sotu League.
The seventh grandson of Zasak Alabutan, Sonom Baljur, the six-strike Lord Dorodarhambell, the Shangxiang monarch, the grant Attached. In the forty years of Qianlong (1779), he served as the leader of the Zhuo Suotu League, concurrently as the assistant of the Lifan Academy, and the director of Mulan's paddock.
The eighth son of Zasak Sonom Balejur, Gunnak Balsang, seven assaulted Lord Dorodarhambelle, and served as Josso Deputy Chief of Tumeng.
The ninth eldest son of Zhasak Gunnak Barzan, Zikmotzab, eighth attacked Lord Dorodar Hambell.
Tenth Served as the eldest son of Zasakzik Motzab, Naxun Ulzi, and the Nine Strikes Dorodar Hambelle, and concurrently served as the deputy head of the Chosotu League.
The eleventh Zasak Naxun Ulji’s eldest son Sanbal Norzan, tenth attacked Dorodar Hambelle. He was removed from Zasak in the 9th year of Tongzhi (1871).<> Hasta Maga, the younger brother of the twelfth Zhasaksanbal Norzan, resigned from the monk position and returned to the vulgar in the 9th year of Tongzhi, and inherited Zhasa as the first-class lord of Tabunang Gram, but this appointment has not been reported to the Qing court nor won the title.
Yundan Sambu, the son of Galsandorji, the grandson of the fourteenth Zasak Naxun Ulji's second brother, Baoyin Ulji. He is the adoptive son of Seling Namzil Wangbao. In the seventh year of the Republic of China (1918), the government of the Republic of China issued a letter of commission to the king of Zasak. He was 13 years old and was the last Zasak of the Tumote Zuoqi.