In China, the story of "Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea, each showing their magical powers" is well known to women and children. Do these eight great immortals have historical prototypes?
iron Kuai Li is the oldest god among the Chinese legends of the Eight Immortals. Several of the Eight Immortals have historical prototypes, but Li Tieguai is an exception. Because of the complicated origins of Tieguai Li, it is about his native place, surname and life time. There are different opinions. Some people say that his surname is Li Mingshui, while others say that his surname is Liu. Mr. Lu Xun said that his surname is Li Mingxuan.
It is said that he was in the Kaiyuan period of the Tang Dynasty. When he was learning Zhongnanshan, his soul was out of his body and when he was traveling with Laozi, he instructed his disciple Yang Zihaosheng to be optimistic about the body. If he fails to return in seven days, he will burn the body. Who knows the sixth day, his familyThe letter said that his mother was critically ill and asked him to respond quickly. Reluctantly, Yang Zi burned Tieguai Li's body. When Tieguai Li returned, he could not find his body, so he had to put himself on a beggar who was starving to death on the side of the road.
Zhong Liquan is the only He was second to Tieguai Li. Quanzhen Taoism respected him as "Zhengyang Patriarch" in the Yuan Dynasty. His prototype was probably between the Five Dynasties and the Song Dynasty. There are many records in history books about Zhong Liquan, but it was later Deified, and attached to the Eastern Han Dynasty.
"Xuanhe Shupu" contains: Zhongli, Mingquan. Claiming to be a Han Dynasty, Lu Dongbin is the disciple. "Song History" ·Chen Tuan Biography: Chen Yao paid respects to Chen Tuan, and there was a Taoist man sitting in a bun. Chen Tuan told him: This is Zhong Ion. Chen Tuan is the descendant of Taoist Hermit Sect at the end of the Five Dynasties, and Zhong Ion is Chen Tuanzuo to entertain guests is definitely a noble way, andAnd it is very similar to Zhong Liquan.
"Song History · Wang Lao Zhi Biography" similar records, based on this, it can be determined that the prototype of Zhong Liquan is Mr. Zhong Li during the Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty.
Zhang Guolao, your name is "Zhang Guo", because he is the oldest of the Eight Immortals, so he is honored as "Old". Zhang Guo is a real existence in the council of Sangsang. Both old and new Tang Shujun According to records, during the period of Wu Zetian, he lived in seclusion in Zhongtiao Mountain. People believed that he was good at keeping good health, and he himself claimed to be several hundred years old.
Wu Zetian once sent People summoned him, but Zhang Guo didn’t want to go, so he pretended to die of illness. Tang Xuanzong openedIn the first year, the emperor summoned again, and Zhang Guo still pretended not to die. It is common for him to ride a white donkey upside down, fold up the donkey while resting, and store it in a box.
He also performed various spells, and was later awarded by the court by the court as a doctor, Mr. Tongxuan. Because he often held rap equipment in his hand, he was regarded as the patriarch of "Daoqing". According to legend, he was included in the Eight Immortals at the invitation of Tieguai Li during the Northern Song Dynasty.
Among the Eight Immortals, the most familiar one is Lu Dongbin. Taoist Quanzhen Taoism is regarded as "Pure Yang Zushi" or "Lu Zu". Lu Dongbin's popular surname is Lu Mingyan, a family member of the late Tang Dynasty. Including "Golden Tang Poetry" Many books contain his poems.
Lu Dongbin is also the most humane among the Eight Immortals. He is wise and funny. He is sympathetic to the common people, and he eliminates violence, catches demons and demons. There are many versions of his legends and various literary images. From this, it can be seen that Lu Dongbin is very popular, and he is also very popular among the people. People put many beautiful wishes on him, and he became Incarnation of people’s personal ambitions.
He Xiangu is the only one among the Eight Immortals female. There are different opinions about her life experience. Some say that he and she are from the Tang Dynasty, named He Erniang, a rural woman who specializes in shoemaking. She was in the Tang Dynasty. It is also said that she was from the Song Dynasty. Many literati in the Song Dynasty took notes, saying that she was from Yongzhou in the Northern Song Dynasty, saying that she met strange people and was derived from eating peaches.Tao.
These notes also record her fortune-telling and predicting good and bad deeds, which are quite efficacious. For a while, she was very famous and famous.
Lan Caihe is the most cynical and unruly begging god among the Eight Immortals. Both "Taiping Guang Ji" and Lu You's "Southern Tang Book" recorded many of his deeds. They called him a man of Tang and Five Dynasties. He behaved strangely and greedily. He often wore ragged clothes and only wore a boot. He wandered in the downtown area.
People often see Lancai wearing off-season clothes, cotton in summer and snow in winter. He lives in no place and travels far and wide. It can be seen from this that Lan Caihe’s character prototype should be a tramp. Because of his madness and eccentricity, people often associate him with a monk., I also saw him begging along the street when he was poor, and some helped the poor, so he was loved by the world and included him in the immortal class. Han Xiangzi
For Han Xiangzi, it is generally believed that he is the grandnephew of the famous writer Han Yu in the Tang Dynasty. ·Introductions are included in books such as the Genealogy Table of Prime Ministers and Taiping Guangji.
Han Yu does have a grand-nephew named Han Xiang, Guan Dalicheng. Han Xiang's theory of becoming a fairy was first seen in the "Youyang Miscellaneous" in the Tang Dynasty, saying that Han Yu had a distant grandnephew who was frivolous and unruly, and he liked to wander and did not book well, so Han Yu was reprimanded. However, he was able to change the color of the peony flowers as he wished in a few days, and each of them contained the poem "Where is the Yunheng Qinling family...", Han Yu was very surprised. It is also said that Han Xiangzi is Han Yu's nephew, and his deeds are similar to those in "Youyang Zazu", and he was said to have been immortalized in the Five Dynasties.
Compared with the strange seven immortals, Uncle Cao appeared later, and there are fewer folk legends, but they are all related to Empress Cao of Song Renzong.
According to the biography of "Song History", Uncle Cao Guo is the grandson of Cao Bin, the younger brother of Empress Cao, and he is named the king of Jiyang County. He loves to compose poems because of his humility and pure nature. He does not like to strive for merit. He later went to the mountains to practice Taoism. When he met Zhong and Lu received him as disciples, he cultivated the Taoist Tao.