The Forbidden City Dragon Chair should have a broad sense and In a narrow sense, in a broad sense, all the chairs in the Forbidden City are the chairs that the emperor has sat on. Because the emperor is the emperor of the true dragon, the chairs that the emperor sat on are all dragon chairs. In a narrow sense, the folk-speaking Jinluan Hall, that is, the emperor's throne on the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City is a dragon chair.
Speaking of chairs, they are 100% foreign goods. In ancient times, the people of the Central Plains sat on the ground, like Japan, without chairs. Sitting on the ground, strictly speaking, sitting on the ground, Zhongyuan has liked kneeling posture since ancient times, and the system worships authoritarian authority. The Central Plains has been a patriarchal hierarchical society since ancient times. How does one reflect hierarchy without chairs? Without a chair, the people of the Central Plains use mats, and use different mats and positions to distinguish them. Zhou Li proposed a five-seat system.
In the early days of the Central Plains, there was not only no chairs, but no beds, so some people wanted to restore a full Han life, so they could not use beds or chairs. The bed was introduced in the Western Jin Dynasty. Because it came from outside the Western Regions, it was called Hu bed. The chair was introduced into the Central Plains in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Early beds and chairs could not be distinguished, and they were all called Hu beds. Therefore, we can only tell whether it is a bed or a chair from some unearthed tomb murals.
It’s uncomfortable to kneel for a long time. Since the introduction of chairs in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, it has become popular among the rich and powerful.In the Song Dynasty, chairs were popularized by ordinary people. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, there were more types of chairs. However, the chairs of the Central Plains, especially the official chairs, have outstanding authority, and are different from the chairs developed in the West for comfort.
When talking about chairs in Manchuria, we must also start with the bed. The bed in the early Manchuria was the Huo Kang. The Huo Kang site was discovered when Manchuria established the Longquan Mansion Site in Shangjing, the capital of the early Bohai State. At that time, the people from the Central Plains went to Manchuria.many. In the Dajin Kingdom established by the Jurchens, Zhu Bian from the Southern Song Dynasty, as an envoy of the Song Dynasty, wrote a poem "Kang Sleeping" for the Huo Kang. The poem describes: , A kang and lie down. Xishan stone is the salary, and the dark color is shocking. Only knowing is inexhaustible, and will continue to be self-sustaining. Flying with clouds, flames of red jade."
In the early days of Manchuria, the beds and chairs used to sit on were fire kangs. The single chair also became popular in the Bohai country. At that time, the trade between Bohai country and West Asia was very developed, so the chair was introduced from West Asia very early.
But the most distinctive chair in Manchuria is the antler chair. The first antler chair was collected in the Shengjing Forbidden City. Its source also has historical allusions. According to "Manwen Old Files", in 1631, in the battle of Dalinghe between the Later Jin Army and the Ming Army led by Huang Taiji, A big deer suddenly came from the east, but in the fierce fighting environment, he completely ignored it and rushed directly into the imperial tent. Upon seeing this, Huang Taiji led his left and right soldiers to swarm and capture the god-given deer. /p>
Because of this battle of Dalinghe, the post-Jin country won a big victory. According to Manchuria XiIt is said that the accidental capture of beasts or birds during the camp with the enemy is a good omen. To commemorate the event, Emperor Taizong Taiji used the huge antlers of this deer to make an antler chair.
In 1754, when Qianlong visited Shengjing for the second time in the east, he saw an imperial poem written by Antler Chair:
Curved arcs used to compete with each other, so we can use the tool to multiply the dragon;
Why should Qibao be envied? Eight-pointed good supply;<>The treasury is always old, and the mountain is better than the new velvet;
If you dare to sit calmly, you will be frugal and respectful.
As the emperor, Qianlong did not dare to sit on this chair in order to show respect to his ancestors. It's just that Shixing made a big splash, and wrote the imperial poems, and carved the imperial poems on the back of the chair for commemoration.
In order to carry forward the traditional Manchu national spirit, Emperor Kangxi also captured a deer while hunting and made an antler chair, which is now preserved in the Forbidden City in Beijing.
An imperial poem left by Qianlong on the back of Kangxi’s antler chair. Since then, the antler chair has become a symbol of Manchurian culture. It’s no easy task to make an antler chair.
Zhang Jingke, the fourth-generation heir of antler chair making skills in Shenyang, once said in a documentary: "It takes about 5 antlers to make a two antler chair. The bottom begins to polish upwards slowly, and the cycle takes roughly three to nine months. The symmetry requirements of the antler chair are very strict, so the similarity of the antlers must be more than 95%. ”
Speaking of the dragon chair in the Forbidden City, folk rumors only have real dragons The emperor can sit, but if a mortal sits, he will not die well.
From the current historical records, there are really two people who are not the emperor who have sat on the dragon chair of the Golden Palace of the Forbidden City in Beijing. One is Wadsey and the other is Yuan Shikai.
Wadssey, his family was originally a prince of a German state, his father and grandfather were generals, his own rank is general, and his title is earl. Although it is also prominent, but it is not the emperor after all. He served as the commander of the Eight-Power Allied Forces, and during the occupation of Beijing, he sat on the dragon chair of the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City. And there is a story about him and Sai Jinhua. Wadsey said that he wants to sit on the highest point in Beijing. Sai Jinhua asked him if he was going to climb Xishan? Wadsey saysYou will know in two days. Sai Jinhua guessed that he was going to sit in the dragon chair and tried to persuade him, but Wadsey would not listen. The next day, he sat on the dragon chair, but felt dizzy and got down after a while. According to some people, it was Sai Jinhua who administered the medicine to Vardesi.
What’s more miraculous is that less than 4 years after Wadsey sat on the dragon chair, that is, he passed away bizarrely in 1904. Germany is secretive about Wadsey’s illness and has not announced the cause of death.
The second person who dared to sit on the dragon chair was Yuan Shikai. Yuan Shikai wanted to be the emperor. But when he really sat on the Dragon Chair of the Supreme Harmony Hall, he also struggled fiercely.
Finally, he took two measures, one is not to sit on the original dragon. It cost 400,000 yuan to make a dragon chair. This dragon chair was found to be full of straw when cleaning the cultural relics in the Forbidden City. The staff of the Forbidden City found the original dragon chair from the warehouse and replaced it. He came back. Yuan Shikai’s second measure was to move back three meters from the place where the dragon chair was originally placed in the Hall of Supreme Harmony. Because there was a Xuanyuan mirror above the dragon chair. The so-called Xuanyuan mirror is a dragon carved on the algae well with a dragon’s mouth underneath. WithA shiny ball, this object is called "Xuanyuan Mirror". It is said that Xuanyuan Mirror can distinguish the authenticity of the emperor. If it is found to be a fake emperor, Xuanyuan Mirror will hang down. Yuan Shikai was afraid that Xuanyuan Mirror would really fall, so he moved back three meters.
In the end, Yuan Shikai only sat on the eighty-three dragon chair, and then stepped down amidst the opposition of the people across the country. Yuan Shikai became ill with anxiety and died soon at the age of 57.
Perhaps there are rumors that Wadsey and Yuan Shikai could not die in a dragon chair. After the Japanese occupation, no Japanese would dare to sit in secret. After World War II, Chiang Kai-shek once came to Beijing. Although Chiang Kai-shek started his career against the whole world, he did not dare to steal the dragon chair.
Author Fu Cha Chunbing
Original works of Manchu Culture Net.