Author: Historical small college
SUMMARY REVIEW As the last feudal dynasty in China, the Qing Dynasty has a total of 268 years of history. After the heyday of Kangxi and Qianlong, during the Daoguang period, it was already in decline. After the first Opium War, China began to become a semi-feudal and semi-colonial situation. …
As the last feudal dynasty in China, the Qing Dynasty has a total of 268 years After the heyday of Kangxi and Qianlong, during the Daoguang period, China was already in decline. After the first Opium War, China began to become a semi-feudal and semi-colonial situation. At that time, the Qing government was so weak and incompetent, why did the powers still Are you willing to lend money to the Qing Dynasty?
The outbreak of Sino-Japanese War in Sino-Japanese War of Sino-Japanese War of Sino-Japanese War caused the defeat of the vigorous Westernization Movement that lasted for more than 30 years. The Qing army, known as the No. 1 in Asia, was brought to a "battle to determine the national movement" by Japan. Have a lookThe government's weakness and incompetence set off a frenzy to carve up China. At that time, countries with almost a bit of strength wanted to get a share of China's "cake".
In the face of this situation, what can the Qing government do? What else can it do? The Qing dynasty, whose national strength is lost, can only stay on the verge and find a way to cure its feet. The bad people are down. In the final analysis, it is the people at the bottom that suffer the compensation. In order to compensate, the Qing government had to take the money from the people. In the first year after the Sino-Japanese War, the compensation amounted to 150 million taels of silver.
However, it is difficult for the people to exploit such a huge sum of money. The Qing government is at a loss. It wants to pay compensation as scheduled, but has no money. What can be done? You can’t let the princes and nobles pay. , Wouldn’t that make the prince dowager upset? The queen dowager was upset, and it was the officials at the bottom who were offended.
So, if you want compensation, the best way Still borrow it. But who can I findTo borrow? There are only a handful of countries in the world that can lend such a number to the Qing Dynasty. When the Qing government officials were in a dilemma, Russia took the initiative to come to the door: Brothers are on hand recently? Brother Mao lends you some? At this time, the United Kingdom was not happy anymore, and came over and said: Lao Maozi is also a group of poor ghosts, let me John Bull support you, brother! what? I don't want to take money from Lao Tzu, be careful I hit you!
So, why do Britain and Russia both borrow money from the Qing government as they are on the pole? There are two reasons: First, the Qing government cannot pay compensation, which is bound to decline. A chaotic China is not in the interests of the powers. Second, at that time, the great powers had changed from exporting goods to exporting capital. It is also commonly known as loan sharking, and France is the leader in loan sharking. Lending silver to the Qing Dynasty also required a huge amount of interest and the Qing government had to provide enough mortgage.
In this way, the great powers in China have won the right to manage tariffs and the right to use important economic land in China. For example, Hurd, the official who manages the customs in the late Qing Dynasty, is one of the representatives.
However, the loss of China’s tariff autonomy also has a process. In 1853, the Shanghai Small Sword Society uprising broke out, which had a greater impact at the time. Britain, the United States and other countries used the name of protecting China’s customs. Occupy the Shanghai tariff. After the Second Opium War, other trading ports were also controlled by the great powers. In 1858, the Qing government signed the Treaty of Treaty of Trade Statutes with Britain, France, and the United States in Shanghai. Article 10 stipulated: "Let the Prime Minister The Minister invited the British to help with taxation and strictly investigated tax evasion. "
In this way, the British Hurd became a ChineseThe General Taxation Department of the National Customs (the first post did not last long, but also the British named Li Taitai), Hurd worked for decades in this post.
After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, the Qing government borrowed three times from Russia, France, Britain, Germany and other countries in order to raise money for compensation. "Tax and deposit receipts from China Customs as guarantee". The "Xin Chou Treaty" and the Qing government have to pay 450 million in compensation. The treaty also clearly stipulates that one of the sources of compensation is the tax of the newly established customs, as well as the money left after the payment of the principal and interest of the previous guarantee, and the increase in tariff income. money. As a result, China's tariff control power is completely lost. After the outbreak of the Revolution of 1911, the Qing dynasty's rule was in jeopardy, and the great powers also became worried. They didn't care about the fate of the Qing Dynasty, they were only worried about their pockets. In order to avoid being sabotaged by the Revolutionary Party, eachThe customs money was transferred to HSBC.
Perhaps the great powers’ worries are a bit redundant. In fact, in order to gain the support or neutrality of the great powers, the Revolutionary Party regime still agrees to keep the tax payment by the General Taxation Department to continue Pay the principal and interest of the remaining compensation. After taking this reassurance, the alliance between the powers has become controversial.
The controversy is divided into two factions: one is a country that did not lend money to the Qing government when signing the "Xin Chou Treaty" but enjoyed compensation. In order to protect their own interests, they hope to keep the money together; the other is to lend money to For countries where the Qing government enjoys indemnities, they oppose joint custody.
After the most final negotiation, the great powers decided the banks that were related to foreign debt before the "Xin Chou Treaty" Organized, a special committee was set up to be responsible for clearing and reimbursing matters, and to decide which bank the tax should be deposited in. Because tariffs do notThe compensation was fully paid. Later, even the local taxes of the Qing government were also handed over to the General Taxation Department for management. At this time, the dying Qing government did not even have the right to spend money.