During the period of the Republic of China, the warlords ruled separately. There were large and small forces such as the Zhi, Feng, Wan, and Gui, as well as a large number of powerful figures such as Wu Peifu, Zhang Zuolin, and Feng Yuxiang, but the Jin clique headed by Yan Xishan But it is one of the few strengths that can last to the end. Although the sphere of influence of the Jin family is limited to Shanxi, its influence has actually far exceeded that of a province.
Why can Yan Xishan dominate one side with only one Shanxi? I think there are several reasons.
First of all, the topography of Shanxi can provide sufficient protection for Yan Xishan. We know that Shanxi is known as "Mountains and Rivers", this title has been in the Warring States period. From the topographic map, Shanxi’s topography is "two mountains and one pass", with Taihang Mountains to the east and Luliang Mountains to the west. Between the two mountains are the Jinzhong Basin, Linfen Basin, Datong Basin, Yuncheng Basin, etc. The river was caught in the middle.
Shanxi not only has mountains as a barrier, but also has the natural dangers of the Yellow River in the west, Datong, a major town in the north, and Datong in the east. Niangziguan is a place that is easy to defend and difficult to attack. Jin Wengong’s uncle Hu Yan knew Shanxi’s advantage back then: victory in battle will win the princes. If it is not victory, the mountains and rivers will be harmless. This site was originally. It is very easy to become an important town in governing the world and a powerful vassal in troubled times.
Shanxi also has rich natural resources, such as coal, which are enough to provide Shanxi with the raw materials for modernized industries. Yan Xishan occupies the advantage of time and place. , Sitting in control of Shanxi, wandering in the chaotic situation, used imaginary and conspiracy on the higher-level government to avoid participating in the melee between warlords. Then he introduced foreign technology to develop military industry and heavy industry.
Another point that Yan Xishan cannot ignore is that he insists on local protectionism. A typical example is that he Shanxi’s construction of a narrow-gauge railway that does not meet the national standards ensures that Shanxi’s economy is not subject to so much external impact. This has made many Shanxi people who don’t know the truth have a good impression of Yan Xishan, but things are not that simple. We have been before As mentioned in the article. In fact, Yan Xishan and Feng XiZhang Zuolin was like Zhang Zuolin. After the first Zhifeng war, the failed Zhang Zuolin retreated outside Shanhaiguan, recharged, cultivated health, developed his own strength, and turned the Northeast into one of China’s important heavy industrial bases. He defeated Wu Peifu in the Second Zhifeng War.
Later, Yan Xishan relied on the heavy industry that he developed and kept his power The scope expanded to Suiyuan and ChahaSeoul, Shaanxi, Hebei and other places. After the decline of Zhang's father and son and Feng Yuxiang's power, Yan Xishan thrived in the north. To a large extent, Yan Xishan's success depends on his correct direction, which is enough to make many forces in the same period feel uncomfortable. These people use their failures to set off Yan Xishan's success.