A country will perish without an army. All dynasties and dynasties have made army soldiers a very important event.
The military system in ancient China has many styles, such as the aristocratic military system in the pre-Qin period, the general conscription system in the Han Dynasty, the military system in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the guard system in the Ming Dynasty, and the banner soldier system in the Qing Dynasty. With so many military service systems, which one is better?
1. The conscription system of the unified empire
The outstanding feature of the conscription system is that all male citizens are obliged to join the army.
In other words, as long as they are of the right age, men have at least two years of compulsory military service. Two years later he retired from active service and became a national reserve member. Once there is a war in the country, these reserve soldiers must always listen to the call of the country and join the army again.
This method of conscription depends very much on the organization and control of various levels of government. Both the Qin and Han dynasties were unprecedentedly strong and prosperous empires. Through the reform of the prefecture and county system, the central government's control over the localities was greatly strengthened, and it had the organizational conditions for general enlistment, so the conscription system could be widely implemented.
The benefits of the conscription system are obvious, it can quickly burst out a large number of soldiers. The Chu-Han Pengcheng Battle broke out in 205 BC. The Han army suffered heavy losses in this battle.In the event of loss, the prime minister of the Han Dynasty, Xiao He, immediately conscripted in Guanzhong, "Xingguan soldiers took advantage of the fort... and the generals and Guanzhong soldiers yielded to revitalize Xingyang with troops." ("Historical Records of Gaozu") In 204 years ago, the Han army was once again annihilated by the Chu army in Xingyang, and the Han king returned to the Guan to conscript. It did not take long to leave Wuguan to go south to Wan and Ye, and then once again fought against Chu Yu Chenggao. . It can be seen that its violent soldiers are fast.
Another benefit of the conscription system is the high level of national armed forces.
Due to the short period of service and the fast mobility, Most adult males can receive two years of military training, which will inevitably greatly improve the military skills of the whole society. Therefore, when a war occurs, the country does not need to carry out much intensive pre-war training, and the recruits can quickly enter the battle.
During the Battle of Qin and Zhao Changping, the two armies were at odds with each other. Even if Zhao Guo replaced Lian with Zhao Kuo as a general, the Qin army had limited strength and it was difficult for the Qin army to eat Zhao army for a while. The worried King Qin rushed to him personally. Hanoi County, under the condition of "giving the people to the first level", "the age of more than fifteen years will be long and peaceful, and Zhao will be protected from food." ("Historical Records · Bai Qi Wang Jian Biography"). The addition of a new force based on military skills finally enabled the Qin Army to wipe out Changping and Zhao Jun..
Second, Sui and Tang Mansion System
The prefecture system that prevailed in the Sui and Tang Dynasties is also a kind of conscription system.
It was originally born out of the tribal military system of the Xianbei tribe. In order to expand the military resources, the Western Wei Dynasty "thus recruited Guan Longhaoyou to increase the army." The military system does not include all adult males in the military system, but can choose those who are wealthy and strong to be included in the military. Therefore, "Suishu·Shihuozhi" said that "the people of the Later Xia are half soldiers".
The advantage of this system is that, on the one hand, it saves the majority of people in the country from conquering; Naturally, the skills are much better than the reserve soldiers who have only received two years of training. Therefore, the military forces of the Wei, Zhou, Sui, and Tang dynasties were extremely powerful. At the same time, due to Juntian production as a guarantee,Military households own the land and do not have to pay for food and taxes, so the enthusiasm for joining the army is naturally high.
But the military system is not without its harm.
First, the flood-irrigation training system cannot cope with high-intensity wars.
Second, it is unable to resist the land and consolidate the source of troopsErosion.
Then the recruitment system came into being.
3. The recruitment system in the Mid-Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty
The basic system of the recruitment system is that the state pays for food and hires outstanding soldiers as soldiers.
This greatly reduces the dependence on registered households. Even if the country does not control so many households, it can recruit enough soldiers from the refugees. The recruited soldiers have long-term service and professional training, which is naturally much stronger than the short-term training conscripts. Moreover, because the soldiers under the recruiting system are relatively free, they will not hurt children and grandchildren to join the army, and they are more easily accepted by society.
For example, in the late Sui Dynasty, due to the continuous launch of wars against Goryeo, the military system that had been used for several decades began to have problems of slow assembly and mobilization and degradation of combat effectiveness. althoughThe main reason for the failure of the conquest of Gaoli was a serious mistake in the command of the Sui army, but the weakening of the army's combat effectiveness is also an indisputable fact.
Later, in order to remedy the inadequacy of the government’s military system, the Sui Dynasty began to supplement it with recruitment. "(Daye) Ding Chou, in the first lunar month of the 9th year of the Spring Festival,...recruiting people as Xiaoguo, gathered in Zhuo County." This Xiaoguo originally referred to the selection of brave and courageous males as soldiers, and later it became dedicated to the recruiting army. title. Shen Guang, the Xiaoguo summoned from Jiangdong, fought extremely bravely. "Strike the city with the ladder, the pole is fifteen feet long, and the light rises to the end, fighting the thieves near the city, picking up short soldiers, and killing more than a dozen people. It fell and fell short of the ground. Whenever the pole has a droop, it will go back up." ("Sui Shu·Shen Guang Biography")
Sui Yang Emperor witnessed the powerful combat effectiveness of the Xiaoguo Army. So this force was compiled into the Central Forbidden Army, which was used as the emperor's guard, and if something happened, it could also be sent out to fight. But because the Sui Dynasty Guo Zuo was not longThe contradictions of the conscription system have not yet been fully exposed. Therefore, the recruitment system is only used as a supplement and has not been widely implemented.
In the Tang Dynasty, after nearly a hundred years of war testing, all the shortcomings of the military system were finally exposed.
One is that with the continuous expansion of the territory of the Tang Dynasty, the service period of the military soldiers was greatly extended, and they were eventually overwhelmed. Originally, soldiers in each government only needed to serve 30 to 45 days a year. However, after the Tang Dynasty's military front pointed to Central Asia, from Chang'an to Gaochang, Qiuci and even Congling, the march alone lasted more than a month. The burden of the military soldiers was extremely heavy, which triggered a lot of resistance. Some realist poets in the Tang Dynasty, such as Du Fu's poems, such as "the side court shed blood into the sea, and the Han emperor opened the side for a long time." .
The conscription system, especially the soldiers under the military system, the original combat range was limited to a few hundred miles, the conscription periodAlthough it is long, once you leave, you can go home soon. Therefore, the government soldiers rarely complain. In view of this characteristic, Mr. Huang Yongnian summed it up as a "regional military system", which is very accurate.
The second and most important reason is that with the deepening of land annexation in the Tang Dynasty, a large number of farmers lost their land, and even some military households lost their land. While they have to prepare their own clothing and food to participate in the war, they have to endure the annexation and exploitation by the landlords. This kind of life is naturally unsustainable. So a large number of military households began to flee. By the time of Wu Zetian and Tang Xuanzong, the households finally fled to the point where they could not provide enough soldiers, so the Tang Dynasty finally had to face reality and abolish the military system. But he couldn't return to the enlistment system, which was less efficient than the government system, so he had no choice but to choose the enlistment system.
But must recruiting be omnipotent? Not really.
Its disadvantage is that it consumes too much money and food. Conscription is not like conscriptionWith the system like that, if you say you want to levy, you just want to levy, and the people who return have fields, and they turn from wartime to normal very quickly. Most of the recruits in the recruiting system are land-lost personnel. After they become professional soldiers, they will join the army as their profession. The country will never give up at any time. Because it takes too long and high cost to re-train a mature army, it can only be sustained. . But maintenance will cost extremely high military expenditures.
Four. Ming Dynasty’s Guarding System
After the founding of the Ming dynasty, Ming Taizu followed the Yuan Dynasty’s military household system and established the Guarding System.
This To put it bluntly, this system is a system of soldiers, with one soldier as a soldier, and descendants as soldiers. But the combat effectiveness of an army that also fights with agriculture is naturally not too strong. Can Zhu Yuanzhang not know? The reason for abandoning the recruitment system and not using it is to use the guards. The mechanism of self-planting and self-feeding of the soldiers greatly reduced the financial burden for the country. After the Longqing Dynasty, due to more and more frequent wars, the guard system gradually collapsed, and the Ming Dynasty had no choice but to pick up the recruiting system. Qi Jiguang’s Qi family army was A typical recruiting. Most of the frontier troops in the Liaodong frontline at the end of Ming Dynasty were recruited. However, it was this money-burning recruit that further burned Ming’s already stretched finances.
So, Whether a certain military system is good or bad depends on the time it is in.Generation decision. Adapted to the social foundation, it can play a great role; if it deviates from the social background, it can only sweep into the dust of history.