The Qing Dynasty was the last feudal dynasty in Chinese history. Qing Taizu Nurhachi raised his troops with 13 relics, which opened the prelude to conquering the tribes to unify the country. Because of Nurhaci's strong command, he led his troops to fight actively, and the battles were victorious, and they belonged to the Japanese people. After more than 60 years of war, in the first year of Shunzhi (1644), the country was unified, the Qing Dynasty was established, and China was ruled for 267 years. In the process of Manchu unification, in order to meet the needs of production and military, the Eight Banners system was established.
One. The establishment of the Eight Banners
At the beginning of the establishment of the Eight Banners system, it was essentially a form of social organization combining military and administration, including military, administration and production. The functions of this aspect, that is, "you will be soldiers when you come in, and you will be the people when you come in, and the two things of farming and warfare, not going to be abolished", which played a positive role in promoting the development of Manchu society and economy and strengthening the rule of the people of all ethnic groups. Nurhachi The people captured from the war are unified, and it is stipulated that there is a record for every 300 people., Each cattle record has one cattle record (zuo collar); every 5 cattle record establishes a cattle record (participation); every 5 cattle records form a Gushan (banner), Gushan is the largest number of registered permanent residences in Manchuria unit. Each solid mountain has a special color as a flag. Due to the increase in population, the limit of 5 Jialabian Yigushan was broken, so the Qing Dynasty had only Eight Banners. "The Eight Banners account is investigated once every three years, and people outside the banner are not allowed to impersonate into the register, and people under the banner are not allowed to live away from the Niulu where they belong."
As the annexation widened and the entanglement gradually became more common, in addition to the unification of the Jurchen tribes, a large number of Han, Mongols and other ethnic minorities returned, from the establishment of the Eight Banners system by the Qing Taizu Nurhachi in 1615 to the Qing Taizong Huangtaiji in 1635 The Eight Banners of Mongolia were organized and set up in 1642. The Eight Banners were actually twenty-four flags, namely the Eight Banners of Manchuria, the Eight Banners of Mongolia, and the Eight Banners of the Han Army. The colors of the Eight Banners are the yellow flag, the yellow flag, the white flag, the white flag, and the yellow flag. The red flag, the red flag inlaid, the Zhenglan flag, and the blue flag inlaid. The Eight Banners became the pillars of the Qing Dynasty entering the customs and ruling the people. The owner of the Eight Banners is Nurhachi, his sonThe nephews are divided into eight banners, and they are called "Heshuo Baylor" or "Gushan Baylor" (Baylor, meaning the king of banners, is the collective name for the nobles of the clan). The various classes of Manchuria are included in the Eight Banners, "using the banner to control the people, that is, using the banner to control the soldiers" . But the title is named as a prince, that is, the imitation system, which is set as fourteenth grade. The grade is more obvious, and the treatment is less obvious. The princes of the Qing dynasty were appointed kings, except for the eight founding kings, they were not hereditary, the kings had no country, and the princes were appointed, or just proclaimed.
After the founding of Nurhachi, military and political power was in the hands of his own brothers and sons, and he established a set of feudal rule with the purpose of strengthening centralization. The Eight Banners in the Qing Dynasty were divided into the upper three banners and the lower five banners. They were the product of the power struggle between the emperor and the kings. The upper three banners are self-collected by the emperor, including the yellow, inlaid, and white flags; the lowerThe Five Banners are the public domains of the kings of Belebe. They are allocated to the territories and people according to the size of the title. The power of the five banners is actually in the hands of the emperor. The affiliation between the banner owners and the people in the banner is strengthened, and they are Zhenghong. , Inlaid white, red, true blue, and blue flags. After the Qing army entered the pass, the eight banners' offensive and warfare functions were weakened, and their defense functions were strengthened. Later, the auxiliary leader increased. Each banner was also divided into forward, guard, firearm, pro-army, and infantry battalions. The chapter system is becoming more and more complete, and the number of soldiers is also increasing. After the Qing Dynasty unified the country, the Eight Banners soldiers were divided into two types: fortified guards and garrisons. The guard camp is divided into Langwei and Bingwei. Lang Wei served the imperial room, selected from the Shangsanqi, and was under the command of the ministers in the guards. The soldiers guard the Forbidden Palace, the imperial tombs, and the imperial forest gardens, and are led by the guards, participants, and forwards. The soldiers include Xiaoqi camp, forward camp, guard camp, firearm camp, and infantry camp. Garrison troops are stationed in key locations, major towns and military gates in various provincesThere are four types of garrisons in the Ai and Eight Banners: Jifu garrisons, garrisons in the three provinces, garrisons in various provinces, and garrisons in Xinjiang, all led by generals. There are five Eight Banners Garrison Lines in various places, namely: "The Great Wall Garrison Line from Beijing via Ningxia and Suiyuan to Liangzhou (Wuwei, Gansu). The Yellow River Garrison Line from Dezhou (this county in Shandong) to Xi'an via Kaifeng; from Jiangning (Nanjing) ) The Yangtze River Garrison Line from Jingzhou to Chengdu; the Canal Garrison Line from Beijing to Hangzhou; and the Southeast Coast Garrison Line from Hangzhou to Guangzhou via Fuzhou."  These garrison lines constituted the "Qing's military control network over the country",  the backbone of the Qing Dynasty's rule.
Second, to consolidate national defense
The Eight Banners are defending their homes and the country, resisting Russian aggression, developing the Northeast,The northwest frontier region has made a huge contribution. The Eight Banners soldiers quelled the "San Francisco" rebellion, suppressed the separatist activities of Galdan Khan in the Mongolian Junggar, Xinjiang Dahe Zhuomu, and Tibet Diba Sangjie. They established indelible activities to maintain the unity of the motherland, national unity, and social stability. Meritorious service. In the middle of the 17th century, Tsarist Russia invaded China's northeastern frontier, occupied Nerchinsk, Yaquesa and other places, wherever it went, a piece of ruins, burned, killed, looted, and committed no evil, which brought a catastrophic blow to the production and life of the people, and the frontier area was at risk. . In 1685, the Qing government sent Heilongjiang general Sabsu to lead the Eight Banners officers and soldiers to fight back against the local fraternal nations such as Ewenki, Oroqen, Daur, Hezhe, Xibe, and Mongolia, and won the full victory of the "Battle of Yaksa."
Eight Banners Soldiers fought for years and galloped on the battlefield. In order to settle the lives of the Eight Banners officers and soldiers, the Qing government adopted a series of measures. Before the founding of the Qing Dynasty, the Eight Banners household registration was both a military household and a civilian household. The Eight Banners soldiers were originally a loose military and administrative organization combining soldiers and farmers. Pawn in war, Nothing to farm and hunt. The Eight Banners soldiers did not pay their salaries, and only distributed some allowances when they went out for battle. In 1621, after the Manchu entered the economically developed Liaodong region, he promulgated the "Country Ding Granting Land" order, stipulating that every male would grant land six yards, five yards to grow grain, and one yard to grow cotton. All came out from then on", marking the establishment of the Eight Banners Land System. Within 500 miles of Beijing, three large-scale enclosures were carried out successively, covering a total of more than 160,000 hectares. In 1645, the "Enclosure Order" was officially promulgated. The land was distributed according to the level of rank. The emperor was the largest landowner. Other princes, nobles, and bureaucrats allocated a different number of banner land, and allocated a certain amount of land to the Eight Banner soldiers. As a "participation" for the sharing of military service, there are different numbers of Huangzhuang, Guanzhuang, Wangzhuang and "banner land". Banner people generally do not cultivate the land themselves, butLease to Han farmers, take rent and lend money, and lead a very comfortable and luxurious life. The result of enclosing land is that a large number of banner people have solved their livelihood problems. They can get fixed food and income in their banner land, and a large number of Han people who were the original landowners have been displaced. After entering the customs, a formal military payment system was promulgated. This kind of food and payment income has become the main source of income among the Eight Banners soldiers. In addition, the Eight Banner Soldiers also receive silver monthly and rice every year, and the officers and soldiers of the Eight Banners of Manchuria who enter the pass from the dragon can also receive a certain amount of official salary and food. The fixed food rates are higher than the living standards of the people across the country.
Four and Eight Banners Military System
After the Qing Dynasty unified the country, the Eight Banners system gradually evolved into a pure military organization, and the Eight Banners Army became a professional army. In order to ensure the source of troops and strengthen the military functions of the Eight Banners system, the Qing government has strict personal freedom of the Eight Banners soldiers. It is stipulated that the guards of Beijing city and the garrison flags shall not leave the station without authorization. If they leave the country due to the incident, they must go to the yamen to get a ticket, otherwise they will be punished in accordance with the law. It is forbidden for flag citizens to hand over property, do not allow flag citizens to marry, do not allow banner people to engage in business or work, only Xu became an official, a soldier, and a errand. This confined Beijing and the garrison people in a small space, cut off their choice of free life, and became the royal tool for the imperial power to consolidate its state.
After the Qing Dynasty established the capital of Beijing, the Eight Banners Standing Soldier System was determined, with fixed numbers of troops and enhanced training. Eight Banners soldiers practiced bow and horse 6 every month Second, in the spring and autumn seasons, they concentrated on training horses, cavalry, shooting and firearms. Before entering the customs, the method of "picking up" the flag soldiers was three soldiers and one soldier, during the Kangxi period, there were five soldiers and one soldier, during the Qianlong period, eight soldiers and one soldier, and later soldiers. The proportion is gradually shrinking. The tasks of the Beijing Eight Banner Soldiers are: internally, guard the capital in peacetime, and serve as the guards;The incident was sent to various places to suppress the resistance of the people of all ethnic groups. Externally, safeguard national unity and resist foreign aggression. After entering the Pass, the Eight Banners soldiers became a powerful tool for the Qing Dynasty to rule the country. Military, administration and military orders were directly in the hands of the emperor, and the Eight Banner Princes' power to control soldiers was gradually cancelled.
Before entering the customs, the Eight Banners soldiers were diligent in farming, and the wind of riding and shooting prevailed. The system of "combination of soldiers and civilians" made them fight dozens of times with a small number of troops It is a miracle that Yu's Ming army finally won the power of the multi-ethnic country. After the national reunification, the Qing government implemented a "guarantee" policy for the Eight Banners soldiers. The Eight Banners has become a typical parasitic group in society. Its false and powerful coat has lost its former combat capability, and its armed forces have been greatly weakened. The decay, weakness and degeneration of the Eight Banners reflect the most weakening of the Qing Empire.Obvious characterization. In the middle of Kangxi, a Manchu official living in the Central Plains, life was corrupted, kite building, daily guests guzzled, and luxury prevailed. Using various means to grab wealth, more and more officials are corrupting the law. A few people have become owners of large amounts of wealth, while most people have become debt bearers. The internal division of the Eight Banners has become increasingly serious.
Fifth and Eight Banners Livelihoods
The livelihood problems of the Eight Banners are increasingly emerging. The preferential treatment policies initially given to the Eight Banners: encircling the flags, exempting from taxes and services, and issuing food and salaries to the officers and soldiers, can no longer meet the daily needs of the Eight Banners. In the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the foreign capitalist powers opened the door of China with "boats and guns". Various indemnities and land cessation treaties caused a large outflow of silver. The financial day of the Qing governmentWith limited benefits, he had to cut his salary. The salaries of the officers and soldiers were "reduced into discounts" and distributed, and part of the salaries were converted into money. The Eight Banners soldiers could only receive 60 to 70% of the original salaries. Sometimes they even defaulted on payment of salaries or even not paid. Many flags were forced to make ends meet. Fuck, often refers to the loan of rations, rations and military payments used to pay off debts. In the early stage of entering the customs, the Eight Banners soldiers had a salary and could support a family of several people. In the future, the population increased greatly, and the soldiers had a fixed amount and the salary had a fixed amount. Coupled with the invasion of natural disasters, the food production and income were reduced, and the life of the banner people who had not made enough money was put into desperation and poverty was aggravated. The upper-level officials and middle- and lower-level bannermen of the Eight Banners often advertise or sell their flags due to economic difficulties. This practice is not allowed in the Qing statutes. With the extravagance and waste of the Eight Banners officers and soldiers, the monthly payment received was squandered within ten days, buying and selling the flags privately.The phenomenon of the land has intensified, and the Qing government has been unable to stop the spread of such incidents. By 1852, the restrictions on banner citizens not allowed to deliver goods were lifted, and the banner land collapsed. Facing the increasingly serious problem of the Eight Banners’ livelihoods, the Qing government also tried to solve it with many methods, such as rewarding silver, repaying debts for the soldiers, and adding one month of money to the banner every year; appointing Manchu officials in the Eight Banners of the Han Army and the Green Camp, and increasing Manchuria. The number of soldiers in the Qi Ding expanded the range of food rates, squeezed out the civil positions of the Han people, and broadened the way for the banner people to enter official positions; mobilized the Han army banner officers and soldiers to go out of the flag, and increased money for raising soldiers; and encouraged the Beijing banner people to engage in agricultural production. All these measures failed to fundamentally solve the livelihood problem of the Eight Banners.
The livelihood of the Eight Banners soldiers has weakened the military functions of the Eight Banners system, and the garrisoned flag battalion system is unsustainable, showing a tendency to collapse. Plus,The Manchu officials were increasingly exploiting the Han people, and the number of hungry people increased. The armed anti-Qing struggle of the Han people spread across many places. Under such circumstances, it is imperative for the "banners" to completely get rid of the shackles of the Eight Banners system. In 1864, the Qing government relaxed the restraint of the Eight Banners system on the Manchu people and allowed the banner people to make a living in the provinces. The banner people got rid of the restriction of "no work and no business", using their flexible hands and clever talents, they started a brand new life. They are self-reliant and engage in jobs that they like or can do, such as agricultural labor, work, business, and craftsmanship, and their livelihood problems are alleviated.
In 1911, the Revolution of 1911 broke out, which overthrew the feudal emperor's autocracy in the Qing Dynasty and established a democratic republic. The Eight Banners system that lasted for more than 200 years of Qing Dynasty’s rule, followed byThe decline and fall of the Qing Dynasty came to an end. The garrisons stationed in Beijing and other places were disbanded one after another, and the Eight Banners system died out in history with the change of dynasties.