The first type of missile boat in the world was the Soviet Type 183P missile boat. The second type was also developed by the Soviet Union, the Type 205 large missile boat. These Soviet first-generation missile boats once played an important role in the world's maritime struggle. After fighting for national liberation, many developing countries used these missile boats to defend their maritime territories and maritime interests. These missile boats have even become "totems" like AK-47 rifles, symbolizing the determination to fight for independence and development without fear of power.
But objectively speaking, the first-generation Soviet missile boats still have many defects. For example, the missile boat itself is too crude, and its displacement is too small, resulting in limited redundancy and poor seaworthiness. The other is the defect of the weapon system. The first is the initial П-15 anti-ship missile, which has a blind area of 20 kilometers and cannot be used effectively when entering the range of 20 kilometers. The second is the "Maple-205" fire control system and single pulse. The seeker is too simple and easy to be interfered by early simple electronic warfare equipment. The third is that the missile boat itself does not have good matching close combat weapons except for missiles. The 205 missile boat is an AK-230 twin-tube 30mm caliber guns, the 183P type is a 2M-3M series dual 25mm caliber guns, each of which is less powerful than the other, and the target of attacking ships cannot be touched. These shortcomings make the missile boats easy to be effectively confronted by the enemy. In particular, the use of "electronic interference from 20 kilometers away, missile + artillery close combat within 20 kilometers" tactics can pose a major threat to the Soviet-made first-generation missile boats. This is the tactics used by the Israeli missile boats to achieve a complete victory in the Fourth Middle East War in 1973.
So, how to correctly organize the tactics to give full play to the Soviet rule What about the combat effectiveness of the first generation of guided missile boats? In fact, before the Fourth Middle East War, the Indian Navy in the 1971 India-Pakistan War had very successful practices. It is a pity that the Arab coalition forces failed to learn and summarize in 1973. This kind of successful experience. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Indian army bought a large number of Soviet-made Type 205 missile boats. After research, it found many defects of the Type 205 missile boat. Therefore, it is necessary to maximize its strengths and avoid weaknesses. The first is to avoid encounters. Electronic interference and other countermeasures. In order to reduce the chances and preparations of the enemy's countermeasures, we should not wait passively, but should take the initiative to make a surprise attack. We should start at dusk and end at night. This is also in line with the practice of the Middle East war two years later. The second is that the missile boat must be coordinated with other ships. So the Indian Navy formed the best CP with its Soviet and British frigates and guided missile boats! The two work closely together. India imported 5 Type 159 "Biejia" class light guard ships from the Soviet Union, with a full load displacement of 1,077 tons and a maximum speed of 33 knots. The biggest advantage is the use of 2 double-barreled AK-726 medium-caliber naval guns, controlled by a radar commander. The gun has a rate of fire of up to 200 rounds per minute. Compared with frigates and escort destroyers that had a displacement more than doubled during World War II, the Type 159 security ship has a clear advantage in firepower, and is particularly suitable for dealing with the "surplus World War II supplies" sold to the world by the West. In addition to the Soviet guard ships, India also has British frigates. These ships can guard the front and flanks to cover the missile boats occupying positions; before the attack begins, they can also detect and confirm the target, and then use artillery for close combat. guideMissile boats are indeed not good for close combat, and frigates can replace missile boats for close combat! As a result, the Indian Navy relied on the "CP of frigate + guided missile boat" and used night and dark conditions to carry out two surprise operations against Karachi Port in Pakistan during the Third India-Pakistan War.
YesThe first raid at Karachi Port in Pakistan was named Operation Trident. In the maritime warfare of the third world countries, this operation is absolutely large in scale and complicated in organization. The basic forces originally planned by the Indian Navy to participate in the war include 4 Soviet-made 205 large missile boats, namely the "Nipat", "Nirgat", "Will", and the Soviet-made 159 alert. The ship "Kiltan". The pre-war preparations were very complicated. The first is to set up command structures separately in accordance with the Soviet regulations, including shore-based command posts and formation command posts. The former is responsible for early command and guidance, and the latter is responsible for assault mission command. The second is because the berth is far from Karachi, the long-range ferry of the guided missile boat mainly relies on the towing method, and the Indian Navy also deployed the tanker "Posak" to refuel the formation. The third is that after the formation arrived at the departure position south of Karachi, Pakistan, the security ship began to patrol the surrounding area.The guided missile boats began to prepare for combat. The fourth is to specially deploy the guided missile boat "Videyut" to serve as a backup and response in Duvalka. The fifth is the shore-based radio technology force, which constantly monitors technical reconnaissance to grasp the real-time movement of the Pakistani navy. ...It can be said that the Indian Navy has done everything a third world navy can do.
In the evening of December 4, 1971, the operation began, and the Indian assault formation left its starting position. The guided missile boat assault group, code-named "Killer" Squadron, moved forward in a forward triangle formation. One side of the formation was the Soviet-made Type 159 security ship. "Kiltan". At this time, the security ship was mainly covering at close range, while conducting a situational alert. During the period, the "Kiltan" received several radar signal contacts, but they were judged as worthless. Until the formation sailed to Karachi. 70 nautical miles to the south, the "Kiltan" security ship received two radar signal contacts, one of which was determined by the guided missile boat "Nipat" on the formation command post and was determined to be the Pakistani navy destroyer "Haibar". It was the "Battle"-class fleet destroyer "Gaddis" of the Royal Navy during World War II, with a full load displacement of 3316 tons, which is a standard "World War II surplus material".
At this time, the formation command post immediately ordered the "Nirgat" missile boat to seize the position and launch a missile assault. After that, two missiles were fired at the destroyer "Ha'ibar" at intervals of 5 minutes. The observation post on the Pakistan destroyer found the flying fireball, but it was believed to be an aircraft, which could only be intercepted by the World War II level 40mm Bofors machine gun. The first missile hit the starboard side of the target at 22:45, and the "Ha’ibar" had lost power and electricity, and its No. 1 boiler exploded. The second missile directly penetrated the hull and hit the No. 2 boiler room at 22:49. After that, the "Hahibar" sank.
At the same time, The coordinated action of the Indian air force began. A group of bombers came to "enjoy" and bombed the Pakistani military's fuel storage facility in Karachi. Some oil tanks were blown up. The port's fire light became the best navigation instruction for sea assault formations.
Starting from 23:00, the formation has shifted to the assault on the other two targets. This time the flagship "Nipart" personally enters the battle and the "Kiltan" is on alert The ship shifted to the other wing to take cover. The two targets were identified by the formation command post as the merchant ship "Venus Challenger", And the destroyer "King of the World". The latter is also a standard "Remnant of World War II" target, which is the CH-class destroyer "Boai" of the Royal Navy during World War II. However, it is obvious that commercial ships that are loaded with arms and ammunition and built in accordance with civil ship standards are the real "thin-skinned" high-value targets. The merchant ship "Venus Challenger" suffered a violent blast immediately after being hit, and sank within 8 minutes. The Indian Navy has made a lot of money this time. The destroyer "King of the World" was hit and hit hard afterwards.
The advancing assault formation is far from the port It was found at 32 nautical miles and destroyed the Pakistani Navy’s "Muhafiz" minesweeper (M163). At this time, at least 220 crew members of the Pakistani army were killed; and the Indian assault formation, only 4 according to the Western Navy classification can only be counted The unit of the boat, and it was completely unscathed. This time the battle is here, India has already had a glorious result. But the assault operation is not over yet. The assault on the target on the shore has begun.
This time, the flagship "Nipat" personally went into battle and launched the first Π-15 missile 14 nautical miles from the coastline.A second one was launched some time later. Targets 14 nautical miles away are also 20 kilometers away from the minimum combat distance of the Π-15 basic model. But in fact, only the first one accurately hit the storage tank in the Kiamari oil field, and its combustion and explosion products detonated several nearby storage tanks. This chain of explosions and previous air strikes by the Indian Air Force caused huge losses to the oil storage system near Karachi Port. The huge fireworks caused joy in the radio and voice channels involved in the naval assault formation, the shore command post and the Mumbai communications relay station. However, during the subsequent retreat, the Indian army re-implemented radio silence.
After the success of the "Trident" combat operation, the Indian army vigorously began its second assault on Karachi Port, named Operation "Moncler". In the evening of December 8, the frigates "Talwar" and "Trisul" accompaniedAttack with the guided missile boat "Venasi" and fight Karachi again! This raid was composed of fewer troops and simpler organization, but it was also the CP of frigates and guided missile boats. It seems to be two imperial frigates with a Soviet-made "little brother". But in fact, it is the "little brother" who plays the leading role as the main firepower output. The frigate plays the role of command and guidance, fire protection, and intelligence support. This is another classic interpretation of the offshore assault combat mode.
In the process of approaching the port, the Indian frigate first monitored the Pakistani radio communication and discovered that the Pakistani military communication A ship. The "Talval" frigate used the British 114mm main gun and the Swedish 40mm Bofors rapid-fire gun to quickly sink it. But at this time the whereabouts of the assault group had been exposed, so the assault became a storm. Sure enough, the "Trisul" discovered through electronic reconnaissance that the Pakistani radar observation station had been eyeing the assault group. Obviously the Indians needed to speed up. By 23:00, the Indian radar had confirmed several Pakistani warships in the port. The target, but at this time the missile boat "Venasi" had a radar failure and could not bind the fire control elements. Fortunately, the fault was eliminated after 15 minutes. At this time, the distance between the assault group and Karachi Port was 12 nautical miles-very coincidentalThe ground is exactly the same as the distance of the shore assault in the last "Trident" operation, and it is also at the best shooting range of the П-15 missile.
After that, the guided missile boat "Venasi" carried out a four-round salvo, which the Indian army had not carried out before. The first was aimed at the oil storage tank on the shore, and the Π-15 missile equipped with the "Gray Sparrow" infrared seeker easily hit the oil storage tank that was heated by the sun during the day; and the other three aimed at the Manola in Karachi Port. Ships in the anchorage. The shooting results were very satisfactory. The first missile caused a fire and explosion at the oil storage facility on the shore, the second hit the British merchant ship "Hamadan Feng" near the breakwater, and the third hit the Panamanian merchant ship that was partially anchored in the south of the anchorage. "Straits Star", the fourth hit the "Dhaka" tanker. After the attack, the old tune of the port garrison of the Pakistani army played out againThe drama of "Judging to have been attacked by anti-aircraft guns and searchlights." What is more tragic is that the large-caliber anti-aircraft gun accidentally injured the Greek merchant ship "Zoe" and sank it tragically. Later, the "Canberra" bombers of the 35th Bomber Squadron of the Indian Army attacked the seaport and the nearby airports of Dlerod and Marsluor. The Indian maritime assault formation took this opportunity to retreat.
In this way, in the two night assaults on December 5 and 9, the Indian Navy launched a total of 11 missiles—7 Π-15 missiles. For surface targets, 3 attacked onshore storage tanks and 1 attacked the dock. Because the Indian Navy's frigates and missile boats cooperate well, the entire combat process is tightly organized, and the strikes are compact and orderly. The Pakistani army has neither deployed adequate cover and defense forces nor effective electronic countermeasures. In the end, almost all of the 11 missiles hit the target. The Pakistani army not only suffered heavy equipment losses, but 12 of the 34 oil depots on the shore were destroyed.
From the first day of its birth, war has been system confrontation! The Indian army's use of the first-generation missile boats was very successful, and it was the effective formation and utilization of the advantages of the system! 197In the third India-Pakistan War in 1 year, the Indian Navy relied on the two routines of frigate + guided missile boat CP and night assault to overcome difficulties such as long distances, complicated procedures, and lack of experience, and established a sound organization and coordination foundation. In the past, it won a big victory and became a classic example of offshore operations and missile boat operations.