"You walk in with your legs, then lie in the coffin and go out. There is no turning back."
"If I betray my friends and family, may my soul and I burn like this icon."
In the dimly lit room,A person at the ceremonial table came over and pierced the trigger finger of Tony Arcetula with a needle, and dripped blood on the portrait of the Virgin in his hand.
Acetula held up the portrait, reciting the solemn oath, lit the bleeding portrait with a match, and looked at it a little Lit to ashes.
A group of people in black came forward to hug him and kiss Congratulations on his cheeks.
They all know it well: For this moment, he waited for 20 years.
Only when someone in the "family" dies, he can fill this vacancy.
Now, he has become an important member of the American Mafia: an "honor" (Man of honor).
From that moment on, he was no longer loyal to God, country, wife and children,Only loyal to his family, his boss, his "teachingFather".
However, what he did not expect is that this thriving crime The empire, from the rise to the fall, only took a hundred years.
today , People are still full of curiosity about this mysterious organization:
What exactly does the American Mafia do What?
Who owns the ups and downs of the mysterious "five families"?
Why do they go out of control and perish?
Will the Mafia make a comeback in the 21st century?
After reading this thrilling history of gangsters, you may realize that in the movie "The Godfather" How "beautiful" the mafia is presented.
High rise buildings
In the first 20 years of the 20th century, 1 million Italians emigrated to the United States and squeezed into New York’s Manhattan and Brooklyn districts account for 15% of New York’s population.
Among them, the gangsters who are rapists are a mob, and they are completely out of place.
Until the US law helped them a lot.
In January 1920, the United States promulgated Prohibition prohibits the sale of any beverage with an alcohol content of more than 0.5%.
The gangsters quickly realized the huge business opportunities of prohibition.
A distiller called "alcohol pot" is blooming all over New York.
At the same time, the development of the local Mafia in Italy has encountered a huge impact.
Mussolini wants to eliminate any forces that oppose him and rounded up dozens of them The family "godfather", more than 1,200 mafia were convicted.
Mussolini’s brutal suppression allowed a large number of old and new mafia men to flee Italy and settle in New York.
In 1924, a 19-year-old boy named Bonanno was caught among these people and smuggled into the United States from Cuba. Before long, he will establish himself in the United States. The gangster empire. Before that, he quickly got a profitable business.
" When I first entered the private wine industry, I It feels too good to be incredible. "
"This is a dayA goose with a golden egg. ”
They smuggled high-quality liquor from the UK and Canada, and also started their own Underground winery.
A barrel of beer costs only $5, and it’s a net profit when sold to a bar 36 dollars.
At the time, however, Bonanno was not yet the protagonist of the story.p>
The Italian gang leaders who were entrenched in New York at that time were "Two Horses"-Masseria and Maran Zano (hereinafter referred to as "Marse" and "Malan").
Masai is a big fat man who is very greedy, but he has a unique vision and a vicious approach. There are three proud young students under him, one of whom is called Luciano ( for short) "Dalu").
From left to right: Dalu, Masai, Malan
On the other side, Malan took 20-year-old Bonanno to his subordinates and escorted his home-brewed whiskey.
He taught Bonanno: "Remember, always touch the body with a gun to make sure that the person is dead Because people are the hardest animals to kill in the world. ”
In 1930, Masai proclaimed himself the New York Mafia "Big boss", Asking every party member for 10,000 US dollars as "tribute money", many people have switched to Malan, and Masai began to massacre the traitors.
Malan refused to submit to Masai, so the two sides broke out conflict.
Although the 29-year-old Dalu was loyal to Masai, he could not understand the dictatorship For the damage caused, he suggested that the boss cooperate more with other gangs, bribe law enforcement officials more, and let the family business spread out, but Masai refused.
Rushing for 18 months, Dalu decided to intervene to end this gangster fighting.
His way to stop the battle is to "kill my boss".
He tricked Marse into eating lobster in an ultra-luxury hotel, and when the dessert was served after dinner, Da Lu got up and walked in In the bathroom, his four assassins rushed into the dining room and beat Masai into a hornet's nest.
The scene where Dalu shot and killed Masai
The gangsters do not know it was Da Lu’s hands. Seeing his "survival" return, They embraced him as the new leader.
Rival Ma Lan takes a look at the country and changes hands, smoothly pushes the boat, and gives it to the little leader Come to bless, and feel that this is his "new ally".
Soon, Ma Lan convened gang leaders from all over the country for a meeting and named herself "The boss of the boss", New York’s highest leader.
His arrogant behavior angered thinking Da Lu, who wanted to sit on an equal footing, five months after killing Masai, Da Lu sent people to pretend to be officials of the Internal Revenue Service and swaggered into Ma Lan’s office to "check the accounts."
In a short while, Ma Lan fell to the ground and died, covered with bullet holes and knives.
Da Lu became the last winner to dominate New York, Bonanno, who knows current affairs, also became his disciple.
Da Lu brought "a big gift" to the New York Mafia——30 years of prosperity and Peace.
He and Bonanno, and the heads of the other three families ——Mancano, Galliano and Provence held a secret meeting. In 1931, the "five families" had begun to take shape.
To resolve conflicts within and between families, Dalu promulgated a new system:
1. Each family establishes its own "Second boss", if the big boss goes to jail or escapes, the second boss will act on his behalf;
Like the military, the family implements hierarchical management, and the boss’s orders are communicated level by level to lower levels. When the underlying thugs have an accident, ensure that the boss is not involved..
2. Lineage is very important: only parents who are descendants of Italians can become members of the Mafia;
3. Mafia members have lifelong responsibilities, and there is no resignation or early retirement;
4. The American Mafia family jointly established the "Management Committee", which is equivalent to the gang "The Supreme Court of Arbitration." Each family has only one vote, and allPolicy the minority to obey the majority.
In other words, the American Mafia has ushered in the "democratic era" and there is no "absolute leader".
At the same time, the Great Depression in the United States made gangs take off again.
The five major families are simultaneously involved in the traditional criminal fields of gambling, usury, blackmail, and robbery, and each family also has its own focus:
Dalu put ManhattanThe terminal and Fulton Fish Market are in the pocket and control the freight business in the clothing industry;
Mancano controls the loading and unloading business of Brooklyn Dock and also takes over the New York garbage collection company.
Provence is the largest importer of olive oil and ketchup in the United States, and from Lotto The lottery business can earn 5 million US dollars a week;
Galliano collects protection fees from garbage carriers and builders on Long Island.
Supermarkets, hotels, airport freight, concrete associations, truckers’ unions... everywhere The Mafia extorted facilitation payments and crushed serious businessmen.
According to statistics, there were more than 2,000 "honorers" in New York City. Among the total of 5,000 mafia members in 24 criminal families across the country, five members account for half.
Their first task is not to kill people and overstock, but to earn money frantically.
In Bonanno’s capitalist point of view, this means that all competition must be eliminated.
The five families do not allow competitors.
Later, Dalu’s successor, Costello ("Kos" for short), "built the plank road in the bright, darkened the warehouse", Also made a lot of money.
He 250,000 candy vending machines were sold to grocery stores, cold drink stores, and convenience stores across New York.
There are hidden mechanisms under these candy machines, which are actually gambling The "slot machines" he used, these machines make him pay 500,000 US dollars every day.
During World War II, many police officersThe key members of the legal institutions have all gone to the battlefield and have no time to take care of the domestic gangs. The war has given the Mafia more room for development.
When the war What makes the Mafia a lot of money is the government-issued ration coupons, which are what we commonly call "food stamps," "cloth tickets," and "oil stamps." The Mafia forges these ration coupons. The market, on the one hand, obtained real coupons privately from corrupt government officials, and then reselled them for huge profits.
Overnight, Gambino, an obscure mafia in Brooklyn (Referred to as "Little Gan"), became a millionaire with ration coupons.
After the war, Coase, who loves gambling, was no longer satisfied with the "slot machine", and his men aimed at a desert in the west. ——They want to open a casino in the desert.
Since the 1930s, the Nevada state government opened the door to the gambling industry. They tried to use This business came to fight the Great Depression, and they were the only state that allowed the gambling industry to operate legally after the war.
But then in Las Vegas, the driversJust a resting point in the desert.
And in 1947, the people of Kos actually had to drop 600 in the desert Ten thousand dollars, build a casino, build a hotel.
This Flamingo Las Vegas (Flamingo Las Vegas) still exists to this day. The most luxurious hotel in the world.
As the business is booming, more and more casinos are controlled by the Mafia. In order to avoid paying dividends to the Nevada state government, many casinos just useThe cash was transferred away.
But people can still say: There is no mafia "the first to eat crabs "There is no "gambling city" Las Vegas today.
to To consolidate the family ties, Bonanno’s son and Provence’s niece married, and the two mafia "royal families" were married. All colleagues came to celebrate, and this luxurious wedding later became the movie "The Godfather" The prototype at the beginning of a classic wedding banquet.
The "godfathers" of the five major families often take turns to host banquets. Still chanting poetry at the banquet, but this peaceful and prosperous sceneIt didn't last long.
For the next few decades, their fate was closely tied to a "should not be elected" president.
Meet the guests
In the 1950s, the three elders of the five major families abdicated one after another , But the reasons vary.
Mancano is strangely missing. The second boss, Anastasiatang, quietly removed him, and he inherited it grandiosely Big bit;
has heart disease Galliano abdicated, the second boss Luces ("Little Lu" for short) took over and was later called "The Lucches family".
While Kos was on his way home, he was killed by the second boss Genovese ("Xiao Ji" for short)) Attempted murder, he did not avenge his life, but took the initiative to take all the blackThe assets of the hand party were given to Xiao Ji.
In the same year that Kos was assassinated, another old guy Bonanno set off for a flight To Italy, he is going to do a "big event".
In his autobiography, this is a "return to hometown to relieve homesickness" It’s a wonderful trip, but in fact, he went to meet the Mafia in Sicily to talk about an agreement to import heroin into the United States.
In the past, the main consumers of heroin in the United States were criminals, prostitutes, gamblers, and rich men seeking to stimulate pleasure.
But this time the most evil part of the Sicily-U.S. plan is through Significantly reduce drug prices, push it to the working class, and stimulate sales.
The mafia’s various crimes are abhorrent, but I’m afraid there is none The damage caused to the United StatesThe heroin plan is on par.
In the decades after the agreement was reached, the mafia used drugs Flooded the United States.
In the 1950s, there were only 50,000 Americans who used drugs ; By the 1970s, at least 500,000 people were addicted to drugs.
In order to get the money to buy drugs, thousands of drug addicts committed robbery and burglary, and the crime rate soared.
The police department has been corrupted by the massive bribery of drug dealers and has become unreliable.
Half a month after the meeting of the Mafia between the two countries, A Nastasia was shot again while getting a haircut. It was Xiao Ji and Xiao Gan who profited from it.
Millionaire Xiao Gan will be promoted to one of the largest mafia family in the country The leader becomes a member of the management committee.
And Xiao Lu married his daughter to Xiao Gan’s son. He and Xiao Gan’s The relationship has become intimate.
The three became the "iron triangle" of the younger generation in the management committee, and they began to compete with the two old guys, Bonanno and Provence .
In 1961, the election of a president completely changed the fate of the American mafia, and the mafia also changed the fate of the president.
He is John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States.
This is a "farmer and snake" story that hurts both sides.
Many people don’t know that Kennedy was sent to the throne by the mafia boss himself .
The person who helped him to the top was not the five big families in New York, but the Chicago black hand Party leaderGiancana (abbreviated as "Lao Ji").
In 1959, Kennedy's father found Lao Ji, hoping that he could help his son and help him to the throne of president. This old father has a deep relationship with many Mafia "godfathers".
In return, after Kennedy takes office, he will provide Lao Ji with "asylum", Congress recognized their legal status.
Lao Ji put out 2 million US dollars of "black money" to support Kennedy's campaign.
In the final vote in 1960, seeing key states such as Illinois begin to waver, Nixon’s advantage in winning became apparent, and Old Kat united with several big family leaders , Send large numbers of Mafia to control polling stations.
they One violent incident occurred one after another, and "forced voting" was carried out to force voters to vote for Kennedy.
Finally, Kennedy used the 49.9% versus 49.6%'s slight advantage won the general election, becoming one of the smallest differences between the two parties in the history of the United States.
On January 20, 1961, Kennedy’s dream came true and he was sworn in as the 35th President of the United States.
but he did not fulfill the promise he and his father made to the Mafia .
He appointed his brother Robert Kennedy as attorney general, And this younger brother has no good feelings about the Mafia.
Under his spur, FBI Director Hoover launched an attack on the Mafia There have been rounds of eavesdropping, tracking and investigations. He even caught a "traitor", Mafia drug dealer Joseph Vakchi, let him be in front of hundreds of millions of TV viewers across the country, unveiling the mystery of the Mafia family.
It was the first time that the people of the United States really I know the existence of the "five major families":
Just one month after Varazzi appeared on TV, on November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated at Dealey Plaza in Dallas. One hour later, in another part of Dallas, 29-year-old Oswald was arrested and charged with the murder of KenPresident Nidi.
Two days later, on his way to the prison, a stubby middle-aged man suddenly rushed out of a group of reporters and shot Oswald to death.
President Kennedy and the gunman were assassinated. When the nation was shocked, the performance of Hoover and the FBI was very weak.
FBI’s investigation work was completed in a month. Under Hoover’s instruction, many investigation directions and The clues have been deliberately ignored.
In fact, in the FBI’s eavesdropping recordings, you can hear mafia bosses repeatedly saying"Kill Kennedy" similar threats.
One of the most famous recordings is: "Cut off the dog’s tail, dog They will bite you; but if the dog’s head is chopped off, the dog will die."
Sure enough, after the president was assassinated, the younger brother of Attorney General Robert lost his backing, and his pursuit of the Mafia was frequently blocked. He himself was also assassinated in 1968.
To this day, the true culprit behind Kennedy’s assassination is still an unsolved mystery, and there are many speculations.But there are many clues that point the finger at the Mafia, and they do have ample motivation to do so. In 2005, Lao Ji's daughter also published a book to admit that her father ordered the assassination of President Kennedy.
"That bastard, son of a bitch! We tried our best to help him win the election, but he asked his brother to We are rushing to death."
But whether the Mafia is involved or not Among them, after the assassination of President Kennedy, the Mafia became the biggest winner in this struggle.
In the next few years of infighting, the old Provence died of cancer. Old Bonanno found that he was lonely and took the initiative Retire and seek completeness, Xiaogan took advantage of the opportunity to support the young Kolobo on the throne of Provence, and was named "The Kolobo Family" from then on.
Xiao Gan did not expect that "the new king" Kolob has changed into "the godfather" "Our tradition of acting in a low-key manner and making a fortune has begun to make a high-profile appearance on television media.
On June 28, 1971, Kolobo held an event for Italian Americans in the center of New York.This large-scale gathering was called "Unity Day" in history.
At the age of 48, Kolob was not only one of the godfathers of the five major families, Is also the founder and leader of the Italian-American Civil Rights League, has won the support of many celebrities, which is unheard of.
In the noisy military music of gongs and drums, more than 10,000 people watched , Kolobo walked slowly to the rostrum, smiled and waved to everyone, people heard three dull sounds like firecrackers.
It was the sound of an old 32-caliber pistol. The bullet hit Kolobo’s head and neck and he fell suddenly On the ground, blood gushing from his mouth and ears, he slumped on the ground motionless.
The gunman was killed on the spot, but it was nothing more than a knife. Behind him were other members of the five major families—they had long been disgusted by Kolob's high profile, they felt The social image he deliberately created as "weiguangzheng" will anger the FBI to restart investigations into the Mafia.
I would rather kill myself and keep a low profile. There are objective reasons for this.
The mafia financial steward once said: "We are bigger than US Steel. ”
In the 1960s, the U.S. Department of Justice analyzed that organized crimes such as the Mafia The profits of equivalent to the total profits of the TOP 10 industrial giants in the United States, the annual net income of the mafia in the United States is between 7 to 10 billion US dollars. Every family can get rich by drugs alone. .
And the Mafia hopes that ordinary people don’t know anything about it.
When the movie "The Godfather" became popular, the Mafia people were not only not angry, but also very happy. "The Godfather" took on the "whitewashing" of the Mafia The "main melody" function of , although full of violence and vendetta, they "appear" to abide by the morals, willingly dedication, and willing to give up the small.
They are The use of force in the hostile American cultural environment was only to allow early Italian immigrants and their descendants to be treated equally-as if all atrocities can be interpreted as necessary and reasonable means.
As stated in the most liked film review on Douban:
"They are charming bastards, sympathetic bastards, bastards who should be forgiven. ”
This may also represent Most American audiences are "fascinated" by the mafia in the movie.
Many Mafia people have watched "The Godfather" back and forth many times, and they think the shot is too good , "This is our Italian!"
Indulge in The mafia who cannot extricate themselves in "The Godfather" will never guess that the 70s when "The Godfather" became popular will be their last carnival night.
has experienced half a lifetimeJi’s flowers are blooming, The dusk of the kings of the American Mafia has quietly descended.
The building collapsed!
In 1967, "Little Lu" Luces died of a brain tumor at the age of 67;
In 1969, "Xiao Ji" Genovese suffered from the heart He died of illness and died in a prison hospital. He was arrested for drug trafficking and sentenced to 15 years in prison.
In 1976, "Little Gan" Gambino died of a heart attack at the age of 74. His designated heir is his brother-in-law "Paulo" (Paul Castellano).
The "godfathers" who named the three families have fallen one after another, seeming to imply the future of the family fate.
As early as 1970, the United States passed a bill called " Anti-fraud and Corrupt Organizations and Group Crime Law, the abbreviation is RICO.
This is a blackHand party tailor-made bills. It allows law enforcement agencies to pursue the felony of "borrowing a knife to kill" the head of a criminal organization, and the days of "grabbing anyone with a gun" are over.
RICO stipulates that murder, kidnapping, drug smuggling, robbery, loan sharking, gambling, bribery, There are 20 felony crimes such as extortion. Even if the two crimes are more than 10 years apart, as long as (the godfather) acts as an accomplice and violates any two of them, he can be convicted as a defendant.
But this is such a "powerful" bill.In the next 10 years, he was beaten into the cold palace, and no law enforcement agency was willing to take the lead in implementing it, causing it to burn.
However, in 1981, the wind direction changed.
FBI agents successfully infiltrated one of the Bonanno family In the action team, the prosecution of the family members is just around the corner.
198In 2 years, the "New York Times" disclosed in detail the dominance of the Mafia in the $1 billion construction industry in New York City.
They illegally manipulated the bidding of construction projects, clearly US$18 million The building can be built, and under the guidance of the Mafia, the bidder raised the offer to $40 million.
Every high-priced project in Manhattan has become a Mafia "Fatty", including IBM Tower and Trump Tower.
In his televised speech, President Reagan also sounded the alarm to deter the Mafia.
"Now, organized crime has reached every level of our society. In the future, the Mafia will be prosecuted more actively, using the RICO decree to seize more of its assets. ”
Nearly 200 agents deployed to the front line of the investigation, Five FBI teams for each crime family have been formed.
Open the bow, There is no turning back arrow.
And one person has waited a full 11 years for this day to come.
The unsung hero who has tirelessly promoted the RICO bill for 11 years is called Black (G . Robert Blakey).
current year , When Brother Kennedy was attorney general, Blake was his favorite.
After Kennedy was assassinated, Robert stepped down sadly, and frustrated Blake hid in college to teach.
But the fire in his heart was not extinguished.
The blazing fire of justice.
who has no stormWhen it rains? Shou Deyun Kai see Yueming.
Blake believes that the complexity of the Mafia family is comparable to a well-managed industrial group .
If you cut the grass, you must remove the roots.
Speaking of one of the most ups and downs of the FBI’s operations, it may It was "Operation Jaguar".
Two agents sneaked into a new XJ-6 "Jaguar" and pried open the dashboard. The bug was installed in a fashionable sports car of a core member of the Mafia, and the thread was soldered to the car battery to allow the car to power the bug.
Unexpectedly, after two weeks, the mafia took his wife and children out for vacation. The car was left at home and continued to use electricity. The bugs drained the battery. The Mafia went home and found that the car couldn’t catch fire anymore.
When an FBI agent listens through a bug in his houseBy the time he was about to bring the car to the repair shop, he knew that the major event was not good, the car repairer would definitely find the bug.
So on the way back to the 4S shop repair shop, the trailer driver Let the traffic police stop the "jaguar."
The police officer took the driver to the police car and questioned the driver’s license and consignment permit. Let the driver face the "Jaguar".
The agent seized the opportunity to kneel down, sneak into the "jaguar", and pulled out the wire of the bug.
Finally, as they wished, the 4S shop failed to find out the leakage The reason was that it had to be replaced with a new battery.
After the past year, prosecutor Goldstark finally tapped in the Jaguar car To a very valuable noun:
The most mysterious core organization. They were overjoyed.
In this way, FBI agents are in the Mafia by disguising as electricians, repairmen A large number of bugs have been installed in the home, car, and office.
The FBI has gathered a large amount of evidence of the five major families’ crimes.
It’s time to close the network.
It took the prosecutor 18 months to write a In the leaky RICO indictment, 9 defendants in the five families-the entire ruling group of the Mafia will be pushed to the dock.
On February 25, 1985, agents captured several current "Godfathers" including "Paul the Grande", Coralo, and Della Colosse.
"This is the most exciting moment in my FBI career. ”
The prosecution launched 85 witnesses, played 100 tapes, and Showed a lot of photo evidence.
From 1981 to 1992, 23 “godfather” leaders in the United States were convicted ,itsMany people have been sentenced to the highest prison term in RICO-100 years in prison, with no bail for immortality.
From 1981 to 1988, 13 "second bosses" and 43 Senior members were found guilty.
By 1990, more than 1,000 criminal family members were conviction.
Thousands of calculations, Xiao Lu still misses one thing, that is, as criminal organizations continue to expand, loyalty is becoming thinner and thinner.
If people are not for themselves, the heavens will die.
The army is defeated like a mountain, more and more party members He began to report and expose his organization and superiors, and confessed everything he knew. As a result, hundreds of party members went to jail.
At the end of the 20th century, with the frequent arrest of "Godfathers", the new leader was difficult to convince the public, the mafia infighting and bloodbathed "traitors" "Frequent incidents, The five major families of the New York Mafia have unstoppable decline.
In the 21st century, as the United States has become deeper and deeper in the quagmire of overseas terrorism, the number of law enforcement personnel engaged in domestic crimes has decreased significantly. The Mafia left the last chance to breathe.
Until 2011, the U.S. Department of Justice More than 110 Mafia members were arrested in one goIt is the largest single arrest of the Mafia in history.
Since then, people rarely hear the news of the American Mafia.
If you ask me, How is the American Mafia today?
The crow can only be described in one sentence:
Compared with the "old glory" of the five major families, they are "do not live well , You can't die if you die."
The things they did in the past, such as blackmail, gambling, drug trafficking, and loan sharking, are still doing, but they tend to be more hidden underground activities.
No "godfather" dared to stand in a square in New York’s downtown and shout.
As Black, the first hero of the RICO Act, said:
"They (the five major families) are The mirror image of American capitalism. They are imitating it. ”
Capitalists are playing tricks, while the mafia fights Struggle for life.
When there are loopholes in the legal system, teaming up to grab money can be "1+1> At 2", the Mafia will flourish;
And when the power of the rule of law can cut the bond of interest, It will soon become a mess of loose sand.
Because money and blood lineage cannot buy true "loyalty" ;
onlyA career that can ultimately benefit everyone can turn small individuals into "capital people."
The century-old American Mafia will enlighten us that individual Mafia organizations may inevitably go to disintegration and collapse.p>
But in capitalist countries like the United States, where guns are flooded and the rich and poor are severely divided, "gangs" As a type of thug’s life and organization, it may continue to exist for a long time.
1800 Many years ago, the political commentator Cao Jie in the Three Kingdoms period wrote aThis famous saying may have predicted the future of the American Mafia:
husband When the spring is exhausted, it will run down, and the root will decay and the leaves will wither.
Those who are prosperous with branches have shady roots, and those who fall out are lonely.
The old saying goes: A hundred-footed worm will never be stiff until death.
This statement is small, but it can be big.
Crow Xiaowei tidying up and editing
First published on WeChat official account: Crow Xiaowei (ID: CaptainWuya)
[US] Selwyn Raib: "The Five Great Families: The History of the Rise and Fall of the Mafia Empire ", 628 pagesZhan Youpeng: "Death Contest: The Rise and Fall of America's Five Mafia Families", page 358Wikipedia: American Mafia, Five Families