The Qing dynasty's official system was complex, roughly divided into nine ranks and eighteen levels. The Qing dynasty was also the last feudal dynasty in Chinese history. The Qing dynasty's official system was most stable during the reign of Emperor Yongzheng and Emperor Qianlong. The reason why the Qing Dynasty official system appeared was to prevent the usurpation of power by the ministers, to divide and weaken the power of the ministers, and to strengthen centralization. The official system of the Qing Dynasty was very different from the official systems of the previous dynasties. There were many levels of the Qing Dynasty official system. There are two categories of local officials.
The official system of the Qing Dynasty can be roughly subdivided into the following types: cabinet, central administrative agency, military system, constitutional agency, and local administration.
Cabinet: The cabinet of the Qing Dynasty was handed down from the Ming Dynasty. Before entering the customs, Huang Taiji used to set up the Wenguan, which was the original model of the cabinet. Later, the Wenguan was divided into three inner courts, namely the Neiguo History Academy, Neihongwen Academy and The inner secretary's office is mainly responsible for drafting documents, issuing systems, drafting edicts, compiling history books, etc.
Central Administration: Following the Ming Dynasty The system of setting up six ministries, officials, households, rituals, soldiers, criminals, and labors, is roughly the same as that of the Ming Dynasty. The chiefs of the ministries, the scholars of the management department, the scholars, and the servants are all called hall officials. Langzhong, Yuanwailang, chief, and the seven-level officials below the chief become the chief officer.
Military system: The military system of the Qing Dynasty is mainly divided into the Eight Banners and the Green Camp. The Eight Banners is divided into two parts, Jingying and Garrison. The guards guarding the emperor in the Jingying camp are called princes.The ministers are in charge together, and the imperial ministers take care of the guards of Qianqingmen and the emperor’s schedules. The green camp is also the Han soldiers, and those stationed in the capital are called patrol camps, which are led by the infantry.
Constitutional Organization: It also followed the Ming Dynasty and establishedFor the Procuratorate, Zuodu Yushi, and Zuo Yushi are the chief officers of the Supervisory Office, while Youdu Yushi and Right Deputy Du Yushi are the additional titles of the governor and governor.
Local administration: The Qing Dynasty followed the Ming Dynasty system,It can be roughly divided into three levels: province, government, and county. Governors and governors are high-level local officials in charge of administration, military, and supervision.
The above detailed description of the Qing Dynasty official system, let us take a lookThe difference between prefects and counties:
Zhizhou, the institution in charge of local military affairs, was an official position established by Song Taizu to weaken Jiedu, and also to prevent the situation of military separatism during the Tang and Five Dynasties. To reproduce, it is stipulated that the provincial governors must directly report to the court and accept the summoning order, and the Jiedu envoys shall not interfere in government affairs other than the state where they are stationed. Later, the Chinese courtiers in Beijing were slowly dispatched to take over the management of the governor's state affairs, called "the power to know the military of a certain state". "Power" means that it is not a formal official position, but only agent management, and "knowledge" is the management. meaning. The "state" of the state military means civil administration, and the "military" means military administration, which is called "knowledge state".
Prefect: It is also the prefect, and was also called Fu Yin. It is the title of local official, the highest administrative official of the state and county, and it is recorded in the official history of the ancient history. The Tang Dynasty At that time, there were very similar contingency methods. In the Song Dynasty, local officials at the prefecture level were officially established as "prefects". After the Ming Dynasty evolved, they had "prefects", and they were sometimes called "prefects" by scholars. The prefect is in charge of a government’s decree and governs various counties. It usually announces national decree, trial judgments, and governanceAll government affairs such as the people, the collection of taxes, and the assessment of subordinate officials are the duties of the prefect. The most famous prefect in history is the prefect of Changsha during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty-Chen Pengnian.
Prefects: Since the Qin and Han dynasties, the county magistrates have been the highest officials of a countyThe governor, the deputy county magistrate of the Tang Dynasty was called the "prefect of the county." The Song Dynasty often sent officials from the central and the DPRK to serve as officials of the county to manage the government affairs of the entire county. It was called a magistrate. If there were guards stationed in the area, or soldiers and horses The prefects and counties are also in charge of military and political affairs. The prefects are also seven-grade officials, which is what we commonly call the "seven-grade sesame official."
If you look at the direct relationship alone, the difference between their three official positions is that the prefects and the Zhizhou of Zhili Prefecture have the same treatment. The prefects have the same treatment as the prefects of the prefectures. The prefects of the prefectures of the prefectures are the subordinate officials of the prefects, and the prefects of the Zhili prefectures sometimes also become the bosses of the prefects. Of course, if the difference is only viewed from the rank of the prefect, the prefect From the fourth-rank Zhili prefecture to the positive fifth-rank or from the fifth-rank, after the Sanzhou, it is the fifth-rank, and the prefecture is the positive seventh-rank. Generally speaking, it is the prefect>prefecture>prestigious county.
Although the prefects and counties are of low grade, the Qing Dynasty has always attached great importance to their selection. The magistrates need to be reviewed by the officials and evaluated by the local governors before they can get actual official posts. Ancient local governments Governance, there has always been a saying that "the imperial power does not go down to the county", which is commonly known as "the strong dragon does not crush the ground and the snake". The imperial government can only manage local institutions up to the county level. In the future, more governance needs to rely on local clans and squires to assist and maintain, so the prefects were governed by ancient local governments.The indispensable official posts are also local officials who actually handle various affairs of the people.
Like the scenes we often see in TV dramas, the prefects are managed locally. If the prefects are greedy and do not handle government affairs well, they will be very tolerantIt is easy to arouse public anger, cause the people to mourn and complain, and cause turmoil. Everyone has heard, "Three years to prefect counties, one hundred thousand snowflake silver", this phenomenon is more common in the Qing Dynasty, under the increasing corruption of officials in the Qing Dynasty, the local officials are hurting the people more and more, not just It’s even more commonplace to search for the people’s anointing and to practice favoritism, accepting bribes, and harming the people. When it comes to litigation at the time, you'd better estimate how much of your wealth is enough to "run a little". That's why the county knows Rights should not be underestimated. After all, the prefects are the officials who directly contact the people, and higher-level officials cannot reach the people. The people of a country are the most important, and the people are overwhelming. If the county’s management of the people is harsh, it will be a harm to the country. The rights of the prefects cannot be underestimated.
The unspoken rules prevail from the high-level officials. This kind of officialdom The style of work penetrated into every corner of the Qing Dynasty, from "inside" to "outside", and eventually created local county magistrates and low-level officials to make money, and they were "bad", thus affecting the overall officialdom of the Qing Dynasty. Style, a small county magistrate still has such great power, let alone higherWhere's the official?
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(Reference historical materials: "General History of China")