"Nine Prefectures, Ten Prefectures, One Hundred and Eight Counties" is a saying that has been circulated in Shandong about the ancient administrative divisions of Shandong, but this statement can actually be said to be wrong. In history, there were ten There are one prefecture, there are one hundred dan and eight counties, but there are no nine states, and no one time point has "Nine prefectures, ten prefectures and one hundred dan eight counties."
"Zhou", "Fu" and "County" are all administrative districtsThe name is the provincial government and Zhili prefecture, and the county is under the government and prefecture. In the early Ming Dynasty, Shandong was formally established as a province. Initially, there were only six prefectures, namely Jinan Prefecture, Dongchang Prefecture, Yanzhou Prefecture, Qingzhou Prefecture, Laizhou Prefecture, and Dengzhou Prefecture. It was only developed into ten prefectures in the Qing Dynasty. Wuding Prefecture, Caozhou Prefecture, Yizhou Prefecture and Tai'an Prefecture are the origins of the "Ten Prefectures".
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the "zhou" was divided into Zhilizhou and SanState, Zhili state and government level are directly under the province, while Sanzhou is subordinate to the government. During the Ming Dynasty, Sanzhou had jurisdiction over counties, and after Qing Dynasty Yongzheng, it no longer governs counties. During the Ming Dynasty, Shandong was under the jurisdiction of all Sanzhou, a total of fifteen. In the Qing Dynasty, Sanzhou was promoted to prefecture or Zhili prefecture, but no prefectures were reduced to counties. Four of them were Tai’an, Wuding, Caozhou, and Yizhou. A state was promoted to a government. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were eleven Zhili prefectures and Sanzhou in Shandong, among which Linqing, Jining and Jiaozhou were Zhili prefectures, and Binzhou, Gaotang prefecture, Dongping prefecture, Ninghai prefecture, Dezhou, Puzhou, Juzhou, and Pingdu These eight states are scattered states.
County is an ancient basic-level administrative unit in China, and it is also the most stable administrative region. During the Qing Dynasty, Shandong had a total of 96 counties. It belongs to the prefectures and Zhili prefectures. Ninety-six counties remained stable when the number of prefectures and Zhili prefectures was constantly changing. After the establishment of the Republic of China, the Beiyang government abolished the prefectures and the prefectures and kept the counties, and the eleven prefectures in Shandong were changed to Counties, plus the original 96 counties, a total of one hundred and seven counties.
In the early days of the Republic of China, the prefectures and prefectures were abolished and the counties were directly under the jurisdiction of the province for a short time. Three administrative divisions, Shandong province is divided into Daibei Road (later changed to Jinan Road), Dainan Road (later changed to Jining Road), Jixi Road (later changed to Donglin Road), Jiaodong Road, October 1925 Zhang Zongchang changed the province to 11 provinces. After the National Government was established, the Taoism system was abolished. At this time, the province was still one hundred and seven counties.
After the Nanjing National Government was established, Shandong Province implemented a two-level system of province and county, and a county directly governed by the province, December 23, 1930 Japan and South Korea Fuju divided Pu County into Pu County and Juancheng County. The county government was formally established in 1931. Shandong finally had "one hundred counties and eight counties" at this time. Juancheng was merged into Pu County in 1936. "Eight counties" only lasted more than five years. During the Anti-Japanese War, Shandong Province was in chaos. The anti-Japanese base area led by the Communist Party of China set up numerous Bian and Lianxian counties. During the victory of the Anti-Japanese War and the War of Liberation, most areas of Shandong were in the PLA Under the control, the national government's administrative rule in Shandong has actually collapsed.
In addition, Shandong had established "Administrative Inspector’s Office" and other institutions during the period of the Nationalist Government, which was dispatched by the provincial government Institutions are not first-level administrative regions. After the founding of New China, they evolved into "special areas" and "regions".