Today is the 14th "Cultural and Natural Heritage Day" in my country, and people's attention to history and culture is unprecedentedly high. Let’s talk about the site of Fenghao Capital, a national key cultural relics protection unit-Zhou Wenwang and Zhou Wuwang.
According to documentary records, Zhouwen Wang Zuo Yi Yu Feng, Wu Wang established the capital Yu Hao. "Fengyi" is located to the west of the Fenghe River in Xi'an, and "Gaojing" is located to the east of the Fenghe River in Xi'an. It is located on the banks of the Fenghe River in the area of Mawang Town and Doumen in the Fengxi New City of Chang'an District and Xixian New District today. The location is northeast-southwest.
Beginning in the 1930s, the former Peking Research Institute and the Academia Sinica Xu Bingchang, Su Bingqi, Shi Zhangru and others conducted archaeological surveys on both sides of the Fenghe River in 1933 and 1943, respectively. In 1935, Chen Ziyi and others from Shaanxi also began to conduct field investigations here. These activities initially determined the general location of the Fenggao site in the Western Zhou Dynasty.
After 1950, the National Archaeological Research Institute and the relevant departments of Shaanxi Province launched a series at Fenghao Site Archaeological excavation work. Since then, the cultural connotation, distribution range, tombs and building base sites, handicraft workshops, the location of the bone channel within the site, and the staging of the remains were basically clarified.
In order to comprehensively grasp the culture of Fengho siteHan, in 2012, the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Social Sciences, the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, and the Fenghao Site Preservation Office launched the "Archaeological Exploration Project for the Scope of the Fenghao Site and the Distribution of Underground Remains". This archaeological exploration work relatively accurately determined the existing area and the four-dimensional range of the Fenghao site. The nine-square-kilometer Fenggao site includes today’s Mawang Village, Zhangjiapo, Kexingzhuang, Xinwang Village, Dayuan Village, Caojiazhai, Feng Village, etc.
In the past sixty years, archaeological excavations at the Fenghao site have yielded rich results.
In April 1954, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences cleaned up two rectangular vertical cave tombs from the early Western Zhou Dynasty. Among them, 8 pottery such as Ding, Gui, Li, Zun and Jue were unearthed from Tomb No. 2. 2 pieces of Tao Gui and 3 pieces of jade.
In November 1954, the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Administration cleaned up a Western Zhou tomb and unearthed bronze, pottery, jade, stone, bone, shellfish, mussel decorations, etc.There are 426 items in total. Among the unearthed bronzes, the inscription of "Chang Bianbao" and Ganei is a rare and important historical material from the period of King Mu of the Western Zhou Dynasty.
From 1955 to 1957, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carried out large-scale excavations in Fengxi for three years, excavating 182 tombs, 4 carts and horses pits, and 2 pottery kilns. The Western Zhou engraving was discovered for the first time. bone.
From 1961 to 1962, excavations in the north of Luoshui Village and other places revealed a Western Zhou water well, unearthed a large number of Western Zhou slab tile fragments and mud wall soil blocks smeared with white ash and grass tendon, and the site of the Western Zhou Dynasty house and pottery kiln. , Ash pit, etc.
From 1980 to 1981, the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Management Committee rescued 12 tombs and 2 carts and horse pits in the Brick Factory of Doumen Town, and unearthed more than 50 bronzes and 50 jades. Among them, the two larger tombs are equipped with carts and horses pits, and bronze wares with inscriptions such as "Bird Ding", "Bo Zuo Ding", and "Yan Concubine Gui" were unearthed.
From 1983 to 1986, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences unearthed 390 Western Zhou tombs at the Fenggao site, including 22 horse pits and 3 cart and horse pits, of which 4 were the Jing Shu family with tomb passages. The tomb is the most important. A large number of bronze ware, pottery, jade, bone clam, ivory, feeder and vehicle parts have been unearthed.. Among them, 39 tombs and 2 chariot pits of the Western Zhou Dynasty were excavated in Fengdong in 1984, covering the entire Western Zhou period.
The foundations of large-scale rammed earth buildings in the Western Zhou Dynasty are found in the Fenggao site. In 1963 and 1975, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successively excavated the foundations of two large palace buildings in the Western Zhou Dynasty in the west and north of Luoshui Village in Fengdong, and found that there were pebble pillar foundations and many slab fragments. In the 1980s, 14 Western Zhou building base sites and 1 road site were discovered in Kexingzhuang, Fengxi, of which the total area of No. 4 rammed earth base site reached more than 1,600 square meters. From 1983 to 1993, the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology drilled 11 Western Zhou rammed earth building foundation sites and cleared the No. 1, No. 3, and No. 5 foundation sites. Among them, the base site of Building No. 5 is the largest and is relatively well-preserved. The plan is in the shape of "I", 59 meters long and 23 meters wide. It is a large-scale Western Zhou palace building base site.
In 1986, the Archaeological Institute of Shaanxi Province excavated a trench with a length of 25 meters and a width of 9 meters and a depth of about 10 meters. The unearthed cultural relics span the middle to late Western Zhou Dynasty.
Another major discovery at the Fenghao site is the storage of bronzes in the Western Zhou Dynasty. In 1961, 53 bronze wares were unearthed from the cellar of Zhangjiapo, Fengxi; 25 bronze wares were unearthed in the cellar in 1973, and 2 bronze ding and Yu were unearthed; in 1985, more than 20 bronze wares such as ding, 簋, 鬲, and beans were unearthed from a cellar in the southeast of Doumen Town. A large number of heavy objects such as "Shi Hui Ding" and "Duo You Ding" with 287-character inscriptions were discovered successively.
at the Fenghao site Crafts such as copper casting, pottery making and bone making were found in the handicraft workshop area. Pottery fan, copper materials, etc. were unearthed; 17 pottery kiln sites were discovered and 81 pottery kiln sites were discovered; 5 bone-making workshops and a large number of bone ware, bone spicules, bone cones, bone scoops and other aggregates were discovered.
The mystery of the Fenghao site in the era of Zhou Wenwang and Zhou Wuwang has been revealed, which is amazing. In March 1961, the State Council announced the Fenghao Site as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units.