In the early years of the Warring States Period, Qin was only a weak and small country in the West and bullied by the six eastern countries, especially the powerful Wei State. After Qin Xiangong's death, the young Qin Xiaogong succeeded to the throne, determined to change the status quo of Qin's weakness and being bullied by others, and determined to carry out reforms and make Qin stronger.
Qin Xiaogong formed a perfect pair of CPs, two young boys, one in order to change the barrenness of the country, shouldering a major historical mission; the other with a passion, wanting to display what he has learned in his life and build a world fame.
Under the collision of passion, Qin Xiaogong and Wei Marting have unswervingly begun to implement reforms. This is the famous "Shang Yang Reform" in history.
The great success of the "Shang Yang Reform" changed the status quo of Qin in one fell swoop, making a small western country a target of fear for all six Shandong countries. Later, it used troops against Wei to retake the land of Hexi and shock the world. , Washed away the shame of Qin State for nearly a century.
This battle made the six countries of Shandong no longer dare to look down upon Qin, and the people of Qin finally stood up and were on par with the six countries of Shandong.
With the continuous efforts of King Qin Huiwen, King Qin Wu, King Qin Zhaoxiang, King Xiaowen, King Qin Zhuangxiang, when King Qin won the reign, it only took ten years to smooth Liuhe, unified the world, and King Qin Zheng also called himself Qin Shihuang and established the first feudal dynasty in the history of our country.
When we were still immersed in the "Shang Yang Reform" which brought great changes to Qin State, Qin State Korea’s neighbor, South Korea, is actually undergoing a reform, the "Shen Buhu Reform" presided over by Shen Buhu.
Shang Yang and Shen Buhu can be said to be of the same clan, and both reforms adopted the same clan. According to the theory of Legalism, why was the state of Qin strong immediately after the reform, and continued until the first emperor of Qin unified the six kingdoms, while South Korea only became a small hegemon at that time? To clarify this question, let’s first look at the "Shang Yang Reform" and " The content of the "Shenbuhu" reform may be seen from the content of the reform.
1. Shang Yang Reforms
In 359 BC, Qin Xiaogong ordered Shang Yang promulgated the "Grass Reclamation Decree" in Qin. The promulgation of the "Grass Reclamation Decree" also completely kicked off the prelude to the reform. This reform that has affected China for thousands of years began with a mighty start.
The main content of "Grass Reclamation Decree" is: stimulating agricultural production, restraining commercial development, and reshaping societyValues, improve social awareness of agriculture, weaken the privileges of nobles and officials, allow domestic nobles to join agricultural production, implement a unified tax and rent system and other reform strategies.
Let’s first make an overview of the main content of "Grass Reclamation Decree" Analysis: Stimulating agriculture and restraining commercial development. In the agricultural society of ancient China, it was not only the bravery of the soldiers, but also the fighting.It is the economy and food. Therefore, there is not enough food. This battle cannot be won. Secondly, the privileges of nobles and officials are weakened, which gives ordinary people a chance to enter the "upper society."
The promulgation of the "Grass Reclamation Decree" is undoubtedly the beginning of a country’s fundamental agricultural reform, and at the same time it stimulates the common people. The "upper society" that they did not dare to expect now has the opportunity to step into it. This is for the common people. It is undoubtedly a huge temptation. There is always a dream, if it is realized, when there is a possibility, people have the motivation to pay for it.
The "Shangyang Reform" has been carried out twice, let’s take a look at each:
1. The main content of the first reform:
(1) Promulgation and implementation of Wei Guo Li Li’s "Law Jing", adding the law of even sitting law, serious misdemeanor Punishment;
(2) Abolish the old princely rule, reward military merits, prohibit private fights, and promulgate the twentieth-class system of rewards based on military merit;
(3) heavy agriculture Suppressing business, rewarding farming and weaving, and particularly rewarding land reclamation; stipulates that those who produce a lot of food and cloth can be exempted from labor and taxes, regard agriculture as the "primary business" and commerce as the "last business", and restrict the business scope of businessmen. Relevant business tax.
(4) Burning the Confucian classics and prohibiting the wandering people.
(5) Mandatory implementation of the individual small family system. The expansion of the source of national taxes and military service laid a solid foundation for the growth of Qin's economic and military strength.
Article 1: Implement a society under the rule of law and increase law enforcement. This is to use heavy codes in troubled times to fundamentally restrain the oldCommon people, the meaning of the existence of law may be to set a moral minimum for people. This minimum is the red line and must not be crossed.
Article 2: Weaken the privileges of the nobility and officials, so that the common people have the opportunity to enter the upper class. At the same time, the military merits are rewarded, and 20 levels of knighthood are established, so that the common people can continue to establish Military merit obtains a higher title. This is the same as the upgrade of monsters in the game. The higher your level, the more privileges you have.
Article 3: Emphasize agriculture and restrain business, vigorously develop agriculture, and reward farming and weaving. What kind of battle.
Article 4: Burning Confucian classics and prohibiting wandering people. Confucianism speaks of benevolence, which is at odds with the ideas of Legalism. In that era of great controversy, strength is the best, so Confucianism is It does not meet the requirements of Qin’s reforms.
Article 5: This seems to be the household contract responsibility system of the last century. You will get more if you do more, and you can get military merits in fighting and serving as soldiers. , The double guarantee of economy and military.
2, the main content of the second reform:
(1) Abolish the aristocracy’s well-land system, "open up the land and confine the territory", abolish slavery and land state ownership, implement private land ownership, the state recognizes private ownership of land, and allows free trading.
(2) General implementation of counties Set up a county-level bureaucratic organization; "collecting small capitals and townships into counties", taking the county as the local administrative unit, abolishing the enfeoffment system, "all 31 counties", the county has a magistrate to govern the county administration, and a county The emperor assists the county magistrate and sets up a county lieutenant to take charge of the military. The county governs several capitals, townships, towns, and gatherings.
(3) Move the capital to Xianyang and build a palace;
(4) Unify the system of weights and measures, and promulgate the standard instruments of weights and measures;
(5) Compile the accounts of five families and ten families , Requiring residents to register each person’s household registration, and begin to collect military taxes by household and population; (6) Abolish the remaining Rongdi customs, prohibit fathers, sons and brothers from living in the same room, and implement a small family policy. It is stipulated that where there are two or more sons in a household who reach the age of household registration and do not live apart, the household registration tax will be doubled. This is a supplement to the law of the "different family" in the first reform, and it is also a standard for social customs.
The second reform is an extension of the first reform. The establishment of the system of prefectures and counties, the relocation of capitals, and the unification of weights and measures are all supplements to the first reform. It is also to increase military power.
Second, Shenbuhu Reformation
Although Shenbuhu Reformation also used "Law" governs the country, but fundamentally it is "technique".
The main content of "Shenbuhu Reformation" is:
The first article is to rectify the governance of officials and strengthen the monarch. Centralized rule;
Article 2: Pursue soldiers, and take the initiative to request orders, become a general of South Korea, incorporate private noble soldiers into the national army, mix with the original national soldiers, and conduct harsh military training , So that South Korea’s combat effectiveness has been greatly improved. At the same time, it attaches importance to agriculture and reclaims wasteland.
The "Shen Buhu Reform" also played a certain role: Shen Buhu Xianghan for 15 years, "Improve politics and religion inside, and respond to the princes outside" helped Han Zhaohou implement the rule of law and the rule of skill, so that the Korean monarchy was strengthened, the domestic political situation was stabilized, the aristocratic privileges were restricted, and the people's life gradually became wealthy. In the body of Shen Zi, the country is strong, and there are no invaders. "
But in the final analysis, "Shenbuhu Reformation" emphasizes "skills". The most important thing is to strengthen the centralization of the monarchy, emphasizing the monarch's control over his subjects.
Next Introduce a story to the reader, justI know why the "Shenbuhui Reform" pays attention to "skills."
He Miao incident:
Once Han Zhaohou sent a minister to inspect, and after returning, he gave a report to Han Zhaohou. Han Zhaohou asked if anything else happened. The minister said that there was a phenomenon of cattle eating seedlings in the crops outside the South Gate, Han ZhaoMinister Hou Rang did not want to talk about this, and then issued a decree stating that the animals were not allowed to eat the crops while the crops were growing. Many ministers did not take it seriously, thinking that it was impossible for Han Zhaohou to know about things outside the city in Shen Gong. After a period of time, Han Zhaohou ordered that any incident of livestock eating crops should be reported. Those who did not report were severely punished. Some ministers started to report. However, Han Zhaohou said that your report was incomplete and asked the minister to recheck. fish. At this time, the minister was respectful and afraid of Han Zhaohou. From then on, he did not dare to deal with it indiscriminately, and paid great attention to Han Zhaohou's orders.
This The story suffices to show that the "Shinbuha Reform" is the monarch’s control over his subjects and strengthens the centralization of the monarchy. Although this does make Korea’s politics clear and the ministers are very committed to their duties, it is obviously not enough for a country’s strength. Especially in those troubled times, rich countries and strong soldiers are the fundamental kingly way. In a peaceful age, this works.
From the above comparison, it can be seen that the "Shang Yang Reform" is to fundamentally enrich the country and strengthen the military, and the dual development of economy and military. Although the "Shenbuhui Reform" also has elements of enriching the country and strengthening the military, The more important thing is the centralization of the monarchy. The final result is that Qin has embarked on the road of a prosperous country and a strong army, while South Korea is only politically clear, and it is for the country.The overall strength has been improved to a certain extent, but in the world of great competition, this is far from enough.
After Qin Xiaogong, although King Qin Huiwen killed Shang Yang, However, the Shang Yang Reform that is still in use continues, and the content of the reform has been affirmed by King Huiwen Qin and even the monarch of Qin. The "Shang Yang Reform" does not matter who your monarch is, as long as you comply with the content of the reform, you can always be strong.Big. Since the "Shenbuhu Reformation" in South Korea, this requires a wise monarch to implement it. If you encounter a mediocre generation, you can't control the courtiers at all. This is another important difference between "law" and "shu".
So after Qin Xiaogong, the monarch of Qin continued to use the "Shang Yang Reform" , Qin can always be strong, but what about Korea? Han ZhaoAlthough Hou is also a generation of Mingjun, his descendants are not wise monarchs like him, and they seem to have more than enough power to control the courtiers.
The final outcome was that Emperor Qin Shihuang unified the six countries, and South Korea became the first country Qin Yingzheng was wiped out in the process of unifying the six countries.