Qin Dynasty (221 BC-207 BC) It was the fourth dynasty in Chinese history developed by Qin in the Warring States Period (Eastern Zhou), and it was also the first unified dynasty under the centralized system. Since then, China has entered the "empire" era.
The "Book of Rites · Wang Zhi" records: "Gonghou Tianfang Baili, Bo Qishili, Zinan FiveTen miles; those who cannot reach fifty miles are not suitable for the emperor, and attached to the vassals. "Zheng Xuan's Note: The vassals were attached to the big country by state affairs, and failed to get through by their name.
The early Qin people were able to raise horses for the Zhou royal family, so they were made vassals by Zhou Xiaowang. (Today Liyang, Shaanxi), Qin became the official clan name of the Qin people. Liyang was the capital of Qin Xiangong during the Warring States Period. In the second year of Qin Xiangong (383 BC), Qin moved its capital to Liyang. In Shangyang Under the auspices of Qin Guoying, Qin Guoying built Xianyang City. In the 13th year of Qin Xiaogong’s thirteenth year, he moved his capital to Xianyang (now Xianyang City, Shaanxi).
Vulgar, his soldiers are brave and good at fighting, and they are also feared by the dog. "This is saying that the earliest fortune of the Qin people began with the Western Expedition of Dog Rong.
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, Dog Rong attacked Haojing (the capital of the Western Zhou Dynasty) during the Zhou Youwang period, and Qin Xianggong defended the Zhou royal family. Moved east to Luoyang (Eastern Zhou),It was officially named a vassal state, and Qin became a state title. At that time, King Zhou Ping gave the land west of Qishan to the State of Qin, but it was actually occupied by the dog.
By the time of Qin Mugong, he was able to accept apology, humbly accepting advice, destroying the country twelve, dominating Xirong, and the national power is prospering. In 361 BC, Qin Xiaogong succeeded to the throne and reused Shang Yang's two reforms, which revitalized the economy of the Qin State, continued to strengthen its military combat effectiveness, and developed into the richest and strongest vassal state in the late Warring States period.
After the king of Qin Yingzheng came to the throne, he successively eliminated Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan, and Qi to complete the great cause of unification. In 221 BC, the King of Qin became the emperor and was called "Qin Shihuang" in history.
From the time Qin Xianggong, the first king of the Qin State (ascended the throne in 778 BC), to the unification of the country by Qin Shihuang as the emperor (221 BC), the people of Qin took 557 years. However, the Qin Dynasty only The second generation died and it took only 15 years. This had to polarize the evaluation of the Qin Dynasty, especially Qin Shihuang, by future generations. One regarded Qin Shihuang as "one emperor in the past" and the other as a tyrant. Independence.
However, this is history?! Many things seem to be accidental, but in fact they are inevitable. In short, the Qin unified China ended the five-hundred-year-long dispute between the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. However, after the unification of Qin Shihuang, he made great efforts in civil engineering,Strengthening the centralization of power has caused public grievances to boil and then quickly die. However, after four years of fighting between Chu and Han, the Han Dynasty was established and once again unified China for 400 years.
Han continued the Qin system. Although Qin Shihuang was gone and Qin II was gone, China continued indefinitely for more than two thousand years, with centralized power, bureaucracy, and county system. The imperial autocratic system based on it has continued indefinitely.
Qin Xiaogong (381 BC-338 BC), surname Ying, Zhao clan, King of Qin Ping in "Yue Jueshu", Ming Quliang recorded in "Records of the History·Suoyin". The son of Qin Xiangong, the king of Qin during the Warring States Period, reigned from 361 BC to 338 BC.
At that time, after the death of his uncle, Shang Yang heard Qin Xiaogong’s order for seeking talents, and he took Li Li’s "Book of Laws" and went to Qin. He met Xiaogong through Qin Xiaogong’s favorite minister Jing Jian . Shang Yang first talked about filial piety with the emperor's way and kingly way. After listening to it, Shang Yang dozed off and communicated.The scene supervisor blames Shang Yang. Shang Yang again used domineering tricks to talk about Xiao Gong. After hearing this, Shang Yang changed his attitude but did not reuse Shang Yang. Shang Yang finally talked about the strategy of making the country strong and strong. Xiao Gong was overjoyed after hearing this. The two talked together for a few days without getting tired.
Under the persuasion of Shang Yang, Qin Xiaogong decided to carry out reforms in Qin.
In 359 BC, Shang Yang assisted QinThe filial piety, the implementation of reforms, made Qin a prosperous and powerful country in the Warring States Period, known as the "Shang Yang Reform" in history.
In the sequence of China's "great reformers", Shang Yang and his contemporaries, such as Li Li and Wu Qi, are ancestors and great figures who "promote historical progress."
But in fact, his man is just a cold-blooded "state capitalist" thug, a terrifying ghost that has never disappeared in the long river of Chinese history.
Shang Yang’s reform ideas have three: 1. Only by eradicating "benevolence, justice, peace and kindness" can the country become strong; 2. When everyone monitors each other and informs each other, the country will become strong; 3. It must be "weak people", " Only by fooling the people can the country become strong. These three articles, whether they are placed today or more than two thousand years ago, are historical reactionaries.
According to the "Historical Records: The Biography of Shang Jun", there are three main contents of Shang Yang's reform: 1, according to military merit; 2,The people are forced to inform each other, and those who do not report "traitors" are cut down; 3. The people are only allowed to farm, engage in other occupations, and those who are lazy and impoverished, the whole family will be confiscated as slaves. These three major contents correspond to Shang Yang's above-mentioned three major reform concepts.
As one of the typical "Hundred Schools" figures like Shang Yang, we can get a glimpse of it. In fact, the 500-year-old "Hundred Schools of Thought" can also be regarded as the "reality" of various "talents" in the ruling class. All kinds of things under demand were staged, but the real "great talents" of the time were Confucius, Laozi, and Mozi, but no one cared about them.
Continuing the history of more than two thousand years later, this kind of thing will be staged again and again. Perhaps, what we need is not a question mark, but an exclamation mark!
According to the "Historical Records", Shang Yang's reforms "have been ten years, the Qin and the people are happy, the Tao is not surreptitious, the mountains have no thieves, and the family is sufficient", it seems that the effect is very good, but the actual situation is: Common peopleThe proportion of exploitation is very large, and he is always struggling to survive, because Shang Yang believes: "The people are weak and the country is strong, and the country is strong and the country is weak. Therefore, the state affairs of the right way are for the weak." According to Shang Yang's logic: when people are poor, they will There is an incentive to seek wealth; after being rich, it will become "prostitious" (Shang Yang's so-called "prostitution" refers to the desire for wisdom); after "prostitution", the country will have "lice" and cannot become strong.
So, the country must find a way to "reasonably" take away the wealth of the people after they become rich, so that they can fall into poverty again. In this way, the people's motivation to seek wealth will be re-energized. They are exhausted for survival and have no energy to seek wisdom, and the country will no longer have "lice". This way of governing the country, which makes the country rich while keeping the people poor, can double the strength of the country.
The influence of Shang Yang's "Legalist" thought is mainly manifested in three aspects.
First of all, Shang Yang advocated an all-agricultural economic policy, for which he issuedThe "Grass Reclamation Decree" was formulated, and 20 methods of focusing on agriculture and reclaiming wasteland were formulated. On the one hand, it directly or indirectly stimulates agricultural development, on the other hand, it suppresses industry and commerce.
Secondly, Shang Yang advocated heavy punishment and great rewards. Shang Yang believes that the nature of human beings is to seek benefits and fear crimes. As long as severe punishments and great rewards are imposed, the people can be governed well and the country can be stabilized. For this reason, Shang Yang formulated harsh criminal laws to govern the people on the one hand, and rewarded Lixin on the other.
Third, Shang Yang advocated heavy warfare and possessed militarism. Finally, Shang Yang advocated that the country should unify the minds of the people, formulate a unified system, and achieve the goal of unification.
After Shang Yang's death (practicality and utilitarianism made Qin State, but destroyed himself, but ultimately destroyed Qin. Sigh! Sigh!), Fajia gradually formed a school through development, Named the School of Business. After five stages of establishment, development, development, finalization, and stamina, the business school gradually became the master in accordance with Qin’s history.The mainstream of thought in Qin and even Qin Dynasty.
It’s a pity that although the "Bao Qin" quickly perished, the "Essence" of the "Faist School" was perfectly inherited by history, and changed its appearance, making Kong Lao Er "back The pot".
Qin Opera, also known as Bangzi Opera, a tradition in Northwest China Drama, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
In ancient times, Shaanxi and Gansu belonged to the Qin State, so they were called "Qin Opera". Because Zaomu clappers were often used to play accompaniment in early Qinqiang performances, it was also called "bangziqiang". So far, there is still a reserved play "Shang Yang Reform" in Qin Opera.
Li Li, surname Ying, Li clan, first name Li, from Anyi (now Xia County, Shanxi) in Weidu. During the Warring States Period, Wei was a minister, political reformer, and an important representative of Legalists.
In his early years, he studied under Zixia, Wei Wenhou thought that he was the prime minister and presided over the reform. Economically, the policy of "doing one's best" and "good leveling" is implemented to encourage farmers to cultivate intensively and increase production. The state buys surplus grain at a fair price in good years, and sells it at a fair price in famine years, so as to keep the grain price down; it is advisable to plant a variety of food crops at the same time to prevent famines.
Politics, the implementation of the "rule of law", the abolition of the secular system of protecting the privileges of the nobility, rewarding the people of meritorious countries, making the Wei state a powerful country in the early Warring States period. Li Tiao compiled the "Law Jing" together with the laws of various countries at that time. It was the first relatively complete code in ancient my country, which has now been lost. His idea of combining "emphasis on agriculture" and "rule of law" had a great influence on Shang Yang.
Shang Yang’s reforms were learned from Li Zong, but Shang Yang did not copy it completely, but was inexhaustible. His main thoughts and measures also have a book called "Book of Shang Jun", but the content of this book is basically nowhere to be found.
However, I have basically explained its core concept in the previous subsection. The biggest feature is that it is based on military merit, and the whole people are soldiers, which has improved the combat effectiveness of Qin to the greatest extent and has a strong The army's conquest of the six countries is the most important in the age of the Warring States dispute.
While reforming the military administration, Shang Yang abolished the enfeoffment system in administration, replaced it with the county system, promoted the small-scale peasant economy in an all-round way, abolished the mine field system, the granting of land system, and opened up farms.The land became privately owned by civilians and could also be bought and sold. This was an epoch-making move.
However, at the same time, it carried out the "terror" politics of severe punishment and law until it developed into the "tyranny" of the Qin Shihuang period, which also planted the seeds for the rapid death of the Qin Dynasty.
In 338 BC, after Qin Xiaogong's death, Shang Yang was accused of "rebellion" by Gong Ziqian (the young teacher of King Qin Huiwen). He was defeated and died on the ground, his body was cracked and his family was killed.
Actually, we can understand it this way. On the day when Qin Shihuang later achieved the great cause of "one emperor through the ages", it was also the end of the world for the people. "Historical Records of Chen She Family" records that when Chen Sheng launched the uprising, he said: "The world is suffering for a long time."
Qin Zhuangxiang King (281 BC-247 BC), also known as King Qin Zhuang, surnamed Ying, Zhao, whose real name was a different person, was later renamed Zichu, son of King Xiaowen of Qin, father of Emperor Qin Shihuang, During the Warring States Period, the King of Qin Kingdom.
Zi Chu was the proton in Handan of Zhao Kingdom in his early years, and later became the King of Qin Kingdom with the help of Lu Buwei.
At that time, the great merchant Lu Buwei in Handan was doing business and learned about the foreigner's situation. He thought that he was "a strange thing to live in" and decided to conduct a political gamble, so he went to meet the foreigner and lobbied: "I can expand your door. "The foreigner smiled back and said, "You should first develop your own door, and then come to my door!"
Lü Buwei said: "You don't know, my door is waiting for you The door can only be developed after the door is established." The foreigner understood the meaning of Lu Buwei's words, so he invited Lu Buwei to sit down with him. The content of the conversation was very deep. The two reached a political alliance.
Lu Buwei gave out five hundred gold to other people for daily life and meeting guests; he also took out five hundred gold to buy rare toys, and took him to the west to lobby in the country of Qin to visit Hua first. Mrs. Yang's younger brother Yangquanjun and sister, dedicated all the things they brought to Mrs. Huayang.
By the way, I talked about strangers who are smart and capable, and the princes and guests I have made are all over the world, saying, "I foreigners regard the wife as a mother, crying day and night and thinking of the prince and his wife."
Mrs. Huayang FeiAlways happy. Lu Buwei took the opportunity to let Mrs. Huayang's sister persuade Mrs. Huayang to recognize the stranger as his adopted son. Mrs. Hua Yang took advantage of the convenience of An Guojun (the prince of Qin at the time) and euphemistically talked about the talent of the hostage hostage in Zhao, and everyone who came and went praised him.
Then he cried and said: "I am fortunate to be able to fill the harem, but unfortunately I do not have a son. I hope to make a different person as the heir so that I can rely on in the future." An Guojun agreed, He carved a jade symbol and decided to make a different person as the heir. An Guojun and Mrs. Huayang gave generous gifts to the stranger and asked Lu Buwei to be his teacher. Therefore, the reputation of the stranger became more and more popular among the princes.
In the 50th year of King Qin Zhaoxiang, the Qin State sent general Wang Jun led his division to besiege Handan, the capital of Zhao State. In retaliation, King Zhao Xiaocheng wanted to kill foreigners to vent their anger. Yiren conspired with Lu Buwei and took out six hundred gold to bribe the city guard official to escape from Zhao State and return to Qin State through the expedition Qin army.
Because Mrs. Huayang is a native of Chu, Lu Buwei asked the foreigner after returning to China to wear Chu costume to meet his wife. Mrs. Hua Yang was really moved, and officially accepted the stranger as a righteous son, and changed her name to Zi Chu.
Zhao Guo wanted to kill Zichu’s wife and son (ie Ying Zheng), because Zichu’s wife was the daughter of a wealthy family of Zhao Guo (in other words, Lu Buwei’s concubine Zhao Ji) and was hidden When they got up, the mother and son were able to survive.
In 251 years ago, King Zhaoxiang died, Prince An Guojun succeeded to the throne for King Xiaowen Qin, Mrs. Huayang was the queen, Zichu was the prince, and Zhao Guo also escorted Zichu’s wife and His son Ying Zheng returned to Qin.
In the first year of King Xiaowen of Qin (250 years ago), King Xiaowen died three days after he officially ascended the throne, and Zichu ascended to the throne as King Zhuangxiang of Qin. In 247 BC, King Zhuang Xiang died at the age of 35. Ziyingzheng succeeded to the throne as Emperor Qin Shihuang.
Qin Shihuang, an iron politician who completed the unification of China, was also the first emperor in China The monarch. At the age of 39, he completed the great cause of unifying China and established a powerful and centralized country with the Han as the main body-the Qin Dynasty, and initially established the territory of China.
Ten years later, in 210 BC, Qin Shihuang died in a sand dune on his way to the east (now Xing, Hebei)station).
Qin Shihuang believes that his deeds are better than the previous three emperors and five emperors, adopting the "emperor" of the three emperors and the "emperor" of the five emperors to form the title of "emperor", which is the first to use the title of "emperor" in Chinese history The monarch, so he called himself "the first emperor."
At the same time, three public officials and nine officials are implemented in the central government to manage national affairs. Locally, the system of enfeoffment was abolished and the system of prefectures and counties was replaced. At the same time, the same text was written, the cars were the same track, and the weights and measures were unified. Strike the Huns to the north, conquer Baiyue in the south, open up frontiers and expand the land, build the Great Wall, open straight roads, drive through the country, build spiritual canals, and communicate with the water system.
But in the later period of the reign, Qin Shihuang dreamed of longevity, sent people everywhere to seek immortals and visits, and requisitioned people's power to build the Abang Palace and Lishan Mausoleum, tyrannizing the people, strangling the people's wisdom, and shaking the foundation of Qin Dynasty rule . In the end, in the first year of Qin II (209 BC), it became the Daze Township (now Suzhou, Anhui) initiated by Chen Sheng and Wu Guanguprising.
Anti-Qin The fighter Chen Sheng has three sentences that have been passed down through the ages: "Going rich and honorable, don't forget each other", "The bird is safe to know the ambition of the hungry bird", "The princes and generals, would you rather have a seed?" These three sentences were quoted by later generations of peasant rebels. Uncountable reprints.
In the summer of 209 BC, the Qin government collected 900When people went to Yuyang (now Miyun, Beijing) to guard the border, Chen Sheng and his good brother Wu Guang were also on the levy list, and they also served as leaders of the village.
As a result, the deadline was delayed by heavy rain on the way. According to Sima Qian, the Qin Law stipulates that "Lack of time should be cut." However, judging from the unearthed documents of the Qin Dynasty, there is no such thing. If the trip is delayed, the property will be fined at most, not as serious as decapitation.
As for whether Sima Qian found Chen Sheng to step down, or Chen Sheng used this to fool the people who don't know the truth, it doesn't matter. The important thing is that Chen Sheng used this incident to incite him to rebellion, and the reason for the rebellion is quite good: "It's death everywhere, it's better to fight to the death. Is it natural that the princes and generals are born?"
I have to admit that Chen Sheng made the right bet. At that time, the class contradictions in the Qin Dynasty were sharp and ignited. Chen Sheng ascended to shout, and people gathered, and heroes from all over the world rose up., Like a spark of fire, the Qin Dynasty instantly plunged into the vast ocean of People’s War.
However, a few months later, Qin General Zhang Han led his army to break the base of the uprising troops, and Chen Sheng was forced to move to Chengfu County (now Mengcheng, Anhui). The general situation has gone, and people's minds have changed. If you are rich, forget it! Among the entire uprising army, it was Chen Sheng's Xiangshang who could get "riches".
Sure enough, Chen Sheng’s coachman, Zhuang Jia, killed Chen Sheng and Qin to save his life. "The bird is safe to know the ambition of Honghu!" After reading Chen Sheng's biography, I realized that "zhi" is only the word "rich" in Chen Sheng's eyes.
Actually, in terms of dynasty changes in the past dynasties, few peasant uprisings overthrew the previous dynasties and established new dynasties, but this does not mean the fate of the Qin Dynasty.
Xiang Yu, famous name, character Yu, was born in Sishuixiang (now Suqian, Jiangsu). Leader of the peasant uprising at the end of Qin Dynasty, outstanding military strategist, famous general of ChuThe grandson of Xiang Yan.
Xiang Yu is brave and good at martial arts. In his early years, he followed his uncle Xiang Liang to revolt against Qin in Wuzhong. After Xiang Liang's death, he led his army across the river to rescue Zhao Wangxie. In 207 BC, in the Battle of Julu, Xiang Yu defeated the main force of the Qin army led by Zhang Han and Wang Li, and finally led the army to destroy the Qin Dynasty. Calling himself "Overlord of Western Chu".
Perhaps, the Great Qin Empire can talk about too much history, but it seems that because it is too short-lived, it should make people think more.
"Burning books and pitting Confucianism" can be described as one of Qin Shihuang's "tyranny". This is a historical retrogression that stifles people's wisdom and destroys ideas. I think this is also inseparable from Li Si's continuing to carry forward the political philosophy of "Legalist".
Li Si (284 BC-208 BC) was born in Shangcai County of Runan (now Shangcai County, Henan Province). Famous statesman, writer and calligrapher of Qin Dynasty.
Li Si was a county official in his early years, and he learned the emperor's art from Xunzi. After completing his studies, he entered the Qin as an official, the prime minister Lu Buwei regarded as an official, persuaded the king of Qin to win the government to destroy the princes and become the emperor, and he was appointed as a long history.
The king of Qin accepted his strategy and sent counselors to lobby the six kingdoms of Kanto with gold and jade, and separated the monarchs and ministers of various countries, and played a major role in the cause of Qin’s destruction of the six nations.effect. In the tenth year of Emperor Qin's administration (237 years ago), he entered the "Book of Admonitions to Dispel the Guest" to prevent the expulsion of the six kingdoms and move to the court.
After Qin unified the world, Li Si, together with Wang Wan and others, agreed to respect Qin Wangzheng as the emperor, and established a etiquette system to worship as the prime minister. It is recommended to demolish the walls of counties and counties and destroy civilian weapons; oppose the system of enfeoffment and adhere to the system of counties and counties; advocate the burning of "Poems", "Books" and other doctrines in private collections, and prohibit private learning in order to strengthen ideological governance.
Participate in the formulation of laws and unify the system of vehicle track, text, weights and measures. The implementation of Li Si's political views has had a profound impact on China and the world, and established the basic pattern of China's imperial autocracy for more than two thousand years. After Qin Shihuang's death, he colluded with the internal officer Zhao Gao to forge the will, and forced the son to commit suicide to Fusu, supporting Hu Hai as the second emperor, and Zhao Gao was jealous.
In the second year of Qin II (208 years ago), Li Si and his son were beheaded in Xianyang, and the three tribes were destroyed.
In the latter part of his life, Li Si once again pushed the legalist thinking to extremes. The result was as tragic as Shang Yang. Zeng Guofan once said that if we seek to be strong in self-study, we can't seek to be strong in the better. This is about Li Si's poisonous killing of Han Fei. In his early years, Han Feizi was also a master of philosophical thinking, but because Li Si was jealous and jealous, he murdered him. In the end, he was killed by Zhao Gao, which was considered to be shooting himself in the foot.
Li Si's calligraphy "Small seal enters the gods, and the big seal enters the magic", later known as the originator of calligraphy. I can't help but think of Cai Jing in the late Northern Song Dynasty, who is also a master of calligraphy, but also accompanied by the last glorious scene of the Great Song Dynasty, messing up politics and ruining the country, and carrying infamy through the ages.
The "Historical Records of Li Si Biography" contains: Si Gu said that his son said, "I want to go to Cai Dongmen to chase the cunning rabbit with the yellow dog. How can I get it!" Then the father and son cried. , And the Yi tribe. Generation powerIt fell, so sad!
Tang Dynasty writer Du Mu's "A Fang Gong Fu" Cloud: Those who destroy the six kingdoms are not the Qin and the Qin people. The Qin is not the world. To make each of the six countries love their people is enough to reject Qin. If Qin Fu loves the people of the six countries, he will be the king of the three generations to the eternity. Who will get it and the clan will be destroyed? The people of Qin have no time to mourn for themselves, and later generations mourn. Mourning for posterityIn view of this, it also makes future generations mourn for future generations again!
"A Fang Gong Fu" was written in the first year of Tang Jingzong's Baoli Period (825), when Du Mu was 23 years old. Du Mu lived in an era where politics was corrupt and class contradictions were extremely sharp, while the domineering vassals, Tufan, Nanzhao, and Uighurs invaded one after another, adding to the suffering of the people, and the Tang Empire was on the eve of its collapse.
In response to this situation, Du Mu vigorously advocated the inner peace of the vassal, strengthened reunification, foreign invasions, and consolidated national defense. In order to realize these ideals, he hoped that the ruler at that time would do his best to govern, enrich the people and strengthen the soldiers, but the facts were exactly the opposite of his wishes.
Tang Muzong Li Heng died with an expression of addiction. Tang Jingzong Li Zhan, who succeeded him, was even more desolate. "The game is endless, and the group is small". "It is good to govern the palace, and want to camp another palace, the system is very wide." He also ordered Lu Zhen, a member of the government, to "repair the Dongdu Palace and Daozhong Palace"To prepare for your fortune (see "Zi Zhi Tong Jian").
For all this, Du Mu is indignant and distressed. He clearly stated in the article title: "The Baoli Daqi Palace , Wide-ranging, pretending to be "A Fang Gong Fu". "It can be seen that the critical sharpness of "A Fang Gong Fu" not only points to the emperor of Qin Shihuang, Chen Houzhu, and Sui Yang, but mainly points to the supreme ruler of the time.
So, it is not only the Qin Dynasty. In a sense, Chinese history is a kind of reincarnation, right?!
At the northern foot of Lishan Mountain in the east of Lintong District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, Standing a huge mausoleum-Qin Shihuang Mausoleum.
Qin Shihuang Mausoleum was built from the first year of Qin Wangzheng (247 years ago) to the second year of Qin II (208 years ago), which lasted 39 years. It was China The first large-scale and well-designed imperial mausoleum in history. There are two rammed earth walls inside and outside, symbolizing the imperial city and palace city of Xianyang, the capital of the emperor.
The mausoleum is located in the southern part of the inner city. It is 51 meters high and has a circumference of more than 1,700 meters. According to historical records, there are also various palaces in the Qin Mausoleum, displaying many strange treasures. There are a large number of burial pits with different shapes and different connotations around the Qin Mausoleum. And tombs, more than 400 have been discovered, including the world-famous "world’s"Eight Wonders" Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit.
"Historical Records: The First Emperor's Benji" says: "The King of Qin has a greedy heart, a self-supporting wisdom, does not believe in heroes, does not love the people, abolishes the king's way, and establishes private rights. Forbidding documents and torture law, deceit first, then benevolence and righteousness, starting with tyranny. "
Sima Qian estimated that he did not look down on Qin Shihuang, nor did he catch the Han Emperor Wu, so he became a great historian.
Although the Qin Dynasty only lasted 15 years, but The pinnacle of "rule of man" established by Qin Shihuang-the imperial autocracy has continued. Qin Shihuang was the founder and main designer of China's centralized power dynasty for more than 2000 years. His influence is profound and wide, and it is unmatched by any other emperor.
For thousands of years, Chinese history has been Confucius in form, but in fact all acted according to Qin Shihuang. Qin Shihuang used Li Si, who was a legalist, but also a student of the great Confucian Xunzi. This is also another aspect of Chinese history. Kind of meaningThe cycle of justice, right? !
In the West, people often regard Qin Shihuang and Roman emperor Caesar is on par. Generally speaking, there is not much difference in population and area between the Roman Empire and the Qin period. But shorter than the Roman Empire, after Caesar's death, the empire fell apart. This was not the case in the Qin Dynasty. This was the reason why Qin Shihuang had a unique influence.
Maybe, nowThe reality is the system, and the system is the reality. But this kind of system, which I call "institutional", has never been smooth in the long river of Chinese history, until more than two thousand years later, the monarchy was eventually overthrown.
After Qin destroyed the six kingdoms and unified the world, Qin Shihuang connected and repaired the Great Wall of the Warring States Period. The name of the Great Wall began in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period and is the most common name for the Great Wall.
"Historical Records · Family of Chu" contains: "The King of Qi Xuan rides on the mountains and builds the Great Wall, reaching the sea in the east and Jeju in the west, more than a thousand miles to prepare for Chu." The Ming Dynasty was the last great wall repaired. In the dynasty, the Great Wall that people see today was mostly built at that time.
The Great Wall is an ancient defensive project in China and the world with the longest construction time and the largest amount of engineering. Since the Western Zhou Dynasty, it has been continuously built for more than 2,000 years and is distributed on the vast land of northern and central China. , The total length is more than 50,000 kilometers.
In 1987, UNESCO officially designated the Great Wall as a world cultural heritage. Today, it has become a great symbol of the unification of the Chinese nation.
However, it may be as Lu Xun said in "The Great Wall": Great Great Wall! In fact, many workers have never been killed in vain, so how can they stop them. It's just a monument now, but it won't be extinct for a while, or it will be preserved.
I always feel surrounded by the Great Wall. The materials that make up the Great Wall are old bricks and new bricks. The two things joined together to create a wall and surround people. When will we not add new bricks to the Great Wall?
"The wind is slack and the water is cold, and the strong men will never return! Explore the tiger's cave and enter the Jiao Palace, look up to the sky and exhale into a white rainbow. "The Warring States Policy · Yan Policy III" contains that Jing Ke will stab the King of Qin for the Yan Taizi Dan, and the Dan is at Yishui (now Yixian, Hebei, during the Warring States period, the north of Yishui was the State of Yan and the south of Yishui was the State of Zhao). Go for him. Gao Jianlijianzhu, Jing Ke and sing together.
This "Yi Shui Ge", through the rendering of the wind and the cold outside scenery, shows Jing Ke to assassinate King Qin The tragic feelings of the time and the firm will to swear not to return unless the task is completed.
Jing Ke, surname Jiang, Qingshi. He was born in the Weiguo Chaoge (now Hebi, Henan) at the end of the Warring States Period, a descendant of the Qi government during the Spring and Autumn Period, and a famous assassin in the Warring States Period.
Jing Ke likes to read and fencing, and is generous and chivalrous. After traveling to the country of Yan, Tian Guang recommended it to Prince Dan.
After Qin defeated Zhao, the soldiers pointed directly at the southern boundary of Yan Kingdom. The Prince Dan was terrified and decided to send Jing Ke into the Qin to assassinate King Qin. Jing Ke offered a plan for the prince's pill, intending to use the head of the rebel Fan Yuqi of the Qin State and the map of Yan Dukang to offer the King of Qin, and the camera would assassinate the king. Prince Dan couldn't bear to kill Fan Yuqi, so Jing Ke had to see Fan Yuqi privately and tell the truth. Fan Yuqi killed himself in order to perfect Jingke.
In 227 BC, Jing Ke took the map of Yan Dukang and Fan Yuqi to the first level to assassinate King Qin.
After Jing Ke and Qin Wuyang entered the Qin Dynasty, King Qin summoned him in the Xianyang Palace and inspected Fan Yuqi’s head and presented the map of Dukang (now Zhuo County, Yi County, Gu'an, Hebei) , Tu Qiong DaggerSee, Jing Ke failed the assassination of King Qin, and was severely wounded by King Qin drew his sword and was killed by the guard of Qin.
Tao Yuanming of the Eastern Jin Dynasty commented: Yan Dan is a good nurturing scholar, ambition to win. Although he has not, he has a lingering feeling for thousands of years.
In 206 BC, the Qin Dynasty fell and the Chu Chinese fight. Han Xin, who was an unknown nationality, went to Liu Bang, but instead of reusing it, he abandoned Handong and returned to Fanheqiao (Today, Liuba County, Shaanxi Province), the river soared, blocking the way.
Xiao He chased all the way to the river, persuaded Han Xin to return to Hanzhong, assisted Liu Bang, and established the imperial business. Therefore, there is a folk song: "It's not that the cold river rises overnight, it won't be Yan Han for four hundred years."
I often feel that when I read history, I feel that Chinese history is full of all kinds of contingency. . Xiang Yu overthrew the Qin Dynasty, but turned around and "subscribed" the world. Liu Bang had no strength to fight for the top spot, but he re-used Han Xin to dominate the world again.
But, is Han Xin a "unintentional" contender for the world? What kind of turbulent story will Xiang Yu and Liu Bang’s "Chu Han dispute" be? Readers and friends are welcome to pay attention to and read the next chapter "The Controversy between Chu and Han".
Compiled by Zhang Feng and written in the Spring of Wuxu in Qidong Cuiyuxuan