Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

2020-08-01 00:20:40 0 Comment 2261 views
abstract

At present, from the Internet, the Qing Dynasty is not only a problem of low evaluation, it is already synonymous with shame! After all, in the Qing D

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Today I’m going to talk to you: why people don’t think so much about the Qing Dynasty What kind of dynasty is it? At present, from the Internet, the Qing Dynasty is not only a problem of low evaluation, it is already synonymous with shame! In fact, modern people’s evaluation of the Qing Dynasty is more of a perceptual evaluation. After all, in the Qing Dynasty, foreign dynasties ruledAnd since the Opium War, the Chinese people have been ravaged by imperialism for nearly a hundred years! This period of history is a history of shame for the entire Chinese people. If you evaluate the Qing Dynasty with this sentiment, you can imagine the result.

But history needs to be evaluated objectively and truthfully, so let’s talk about what kind of dynasty the Qing Dynasty was. Based on people's low appraisal of the Qing Dynasty, the author concluded that there are three main reasons. For these three reasons, many people dislike the Qing Dynasty. But even so, we cannot deny its many contributions to China because of dislike.


FirstSay three main reasons why people "dislike" the Qing Dynasty?

1. Shaving hair is easy to wear and it hurts. Han people who refuse to shave or wear clothes will raise a butcher knife to kill them. Furthermore, shaved hair and easy clothes have caused immeasurable mental harm to the Chinese with Han as the main body and severely damaged China's cultural heritage for thousands of years.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

2. The identity of foreign invaders and the bloody massacre occurred when they entered the Central Plains, resulting in hatred of Manchu and Han Deepen. When the rulers of the Qing Dynasty ruled outside the pass, they first massacred and enslaved the Han people in Liaodong. Later, after entering the pass, they raised butcher knives to intimidate the Han people. The three massacres in Jiading and the Ten Days in Yangzhou were countless. The massacre of the rulers caused a sharp decline in the population of the Han Chinese in China, and it also left a deep hatred. Therefore, many people now hate the rulers of the Qing Dynasty (I doubt this, let’s see the analysis below).

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

3. Being bullied by foreign powers in modern times Such unequal treaties have reduced China to a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country. People’s lives are in dire straits, and more importantly, they have ceded millions of square kilometers of territory.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

However, the Qing dynasty is China’s great fortune. Why do you say that, and Let’s talk about it in detail.


Invasion, the late Qing Dynasty was dark

Since the establishment of the Qin Dynasty, China has beenAll were alternate rule of feudal dynasties. The characteristics of the feudal dynasty are great unification, Confucianism, farming civilization, and social stability but few breakthroughs. This kind of feudal society is very strong in China. Assuming that there is no major invasion of foreign civilization, I believe that it will continue to rotate from dynasty to dynasty.

In the Qing Dynasty, the West, which had been ignorant and backward for a long time, suddenly opened up. First, it reformed itself in the political system, and promoted the liberation of labor through the reform of the system. In the end, the popularization of machines replaced manual work, thereby realizing a major upgrade of social productivity. This was the first industrial revolution, which took about a hundred years.

Know that the first industrial revolutionZhang synchronously. After all major western countries have realized industrialized societies, they found that the domestic market could not satisfy them with excess productivity. In order to further develop, it is necessary to expand the market, solve the problem of commodity sales and raw material sources, so as to realize the redevelopment of the industry, so aggression becomes their only means of expansion.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

South Asia is the first to suffer in Asia. Why not say India but South Asia? I will talk about it below. At that time, the largest country in South Asia was the Mughal Empire, occupying most of the central and northern parts of the entire South Asian subcontinent. On the Deccan Peninsula in the south is a country established by the Maratha and Mysore people. Because of the long-term hostility with the Mughal Empire, they often fight each other. At the same time, foreign Afghans continue to invade the Mughal borders, and these hostile forces have seriously depleted the national power of the Mughal Empire. Moreover, the Mughal Empire is also in a state of fragmentation due to its large number of ethnic groups. Many Tubangs and tribes are still independent and semi-independent. In the 18th century, the Marata people rose strongly and their forces invaded the empire, and the Mughal emperor even became the puppet of the Marata people. So when the British came in the mid-18th century, The Mughal Empire was dying, weak, and unable to withstand the menacing British.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

The British defeated the Mughal empire’s army easily and cleverly Using the complex ethnic contradictions within South Asia to provoke their civil war, they gradually controlled the entire South Asia and established a huge colonial rule——British India. Objectively speaking, the unification of South Asia is entirely due to British colonial rule. The division and independence of India and Pakistan in the middle of the 20th century was another evil made by Britain. McMahon dashed lines according to the picture, abruptly dividing the South Asian continent into two countries, splitting Pakistan into two parts, and also dividing China's southern Tibet into the scope of India. Before leaving, he would also provoke China, India and India. Pakistan’s territorial conflict.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Speaking of which, after the British occupied the entire South Asia, South Asia became the UK’s commodity dumping market and raw material supply. Here is another one The key thing-Poppy! Poppy is a unique plant that grows in this region of Bangladesh and Myanmar. The locals have a long tradition of smoking poppy, just as a natural medicine to relieve fatigue. The British I quickly discovered this business opportunity and began to grow opium poppy on a large scale and improve its purity to make opium. Opium first made the South Asians more occupied, and at the same time the British used it themselves and brought it back to Europe.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Speaking of trade, since the Ming Dynasty, there was trade between China and the West. Trade in the Qing Dynasty was even more frequent. However, for hundreds of years, this trade was mostly one-way trade. What does it mean? China was only responsible for exporting a large number of specialty products such as tea, porcelain and silk, but there were not many goods that could be imported from the West. The main representative of Western trade is the United Kingdom. Due to the long-term trade deficit, a large amount of silver has flowed into China, and it can hardly bear it. So in 1793, the British King sent a Macartney mission to the Qing Dynasty.In addition to celebrating the birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the supreme ruler at the time, the DPRK also wanted to discuss business matters. You must know that at that time, Britain had already established a colonial empire that never sets in the sun. In order to be able to communicate with the Qing Dynasty, the United Kingdom really had its blood capital at the time. It showed its utmost sincerity to have an equal dialogue with China. We can see from the gift list: steam engine, cotton spinning machine, loom, hot air balloon , Luxurious four-wheeled carriages, clocks, pocket watches, guns and ammunition. It also includes 8 state-of-the-art field guns and a model of the world’s largest battleship Monarch. In order to flatter Qianlong, the King of England also specially made a set of sterling silver solar system kinematics.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

As a result, Qianlong accepted the bunch of gifts as tributes with peace of mind. Before it was over, Magartney’s trade proposal was rejected on the spot, and he also said "dominant words." Everyone should remember: "The Heavenly Dynasty is rich in resources and has everything. Goods are always available."

Qianlong arrogantly regarded Britain as a peaceThe vassal states such as Xian Ryukyu regard this British talks as an act of tribute. Since it is a tribute, it must be a tribute. Britain sent more than 600 gifts from two ships, and Qianlong returned gifts from seven ships in Britain, more than 3,000! It's nothing but tea, silk, porcelain, jade, etc. Macartney was quite disappointed with this trip to China. His evaluation of China was: "China is just a dilapidated warship. The reason why it did not sink is all because of the shrewd captain. Once an incompetent person leaves. It will not be able to withstand storms and rains."

Because of the supremacy and arrogance of the Qing rulers, the Qing Dynasty lost its strength in its heyday. An opportunity for self-improvement. If Emperor Qianlong realized the huge benefits brought by these industrial civilizations, he would slowlyIndustrial civilization is close, and Western powers have no chance to invade China. China may slowly transform itself into a "monarchical parliamentary system" similar to Britain. But history has no if, tragedy has come.

Because of the long-term huge trade deficit between China and the West, the "agricultural civilization and self-sufficiency" social structure of the Qing Dynasty made Western industrial goods impossible to sell. Go in. In desperation, Britain thought of a "damage move" to get opium in. Everyone knows that opium is a kind of drug. Although compared with the current drugs, it is much less harmful, but if you consume more, you will become addicted. Since the late Qianlong period, opium has flowed into China. The Chinese quickly realized this "good thing". Opium circulated rapidly in China and the demand was increasing. At the same time, not only the British brought opium from Bangladesh and Burma into China, but the United States alsoTurkey imported opium to China, and Tsarist Russia imported opium to northern China in Central Asia. China became the largest market for opium in Western powers.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Due to the sharp increase in opium imports, the The status of trade has completely changed. Britain has changed from the original import super market to export super market, but ChinaOn the contrary, it caused a large outflow of silver. According to statistics, between 1820 and 1840, the outflow of silver from China was about 100 million taels. The continuous outflow of silver caused by the massive import of opium has begun to disrupt the Qing Dynasty’s treasury and currency circulation, bringing the Qing Dynasty’s economy on the verge of collapse. What's more serious is that the proliferation of opium has greatly damaged the physical and mental health of addicts. If it is allowed to develop, it will inevitably endanger the Chinese nation.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

So there is Lin Zexu’s Humen Cigarette Sale. This is China’s own legitimate means of safeguarding national security, but the British regard the Chinese people’s anti-smoking campaign as an infringement of private property, and they find it intolerable. We can also see it as an excuse for the empire to launch a war against China when the sun never sets. In 1840, the British-initiated war of aggression against China broke out, which is known as the first Opium War in history. The war lasted for two years. British troops landed from Guangzhou and penetrated most of China's coastal areas. As a result, the Qing Dynasty failed miserably and was forced to sign the first unequal treaty "Nanjing Treaty" on August 29, 1842!

The signing of the "Nanjing Treaty" officially marked the late Qing Dynasty, and China also began to become a semi-colony.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Because of the first Opium War, the Western powers suddenly realized that the Qing Dynasty was only big and weak A decadent country in China is completely vulnerable to industrial civilization. The following history is only more than a hundred years away from the present, I believe readers will also know it very well, and it is a mess. No matter the big country or the small country, all come to bully, all kinds of inequalityThe treaties were signed over and over, and the territory was cut away by millions.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

When the Qing Dynasty is overthrown, it will be counted together with Outer Mongolia,China has lost 3.36 million kilometers of territory, of which Mao Xiong is the culprit! I made a list, you can check it out:

In 1840, it was invaded and occupied by British India in Ladakh and southern Tibet, totaling 98,000 square kilometers;

1858 "Sino-Russian Ahui Treaty" , Invaded and cut the land of 600,000 square kilometers north of Heilongjiang;

In 1860, the "Sino-Russian Beijing Treaty" cut and occupied 400,000 square kilometers of land east of the Ussuri River;

In 1864, "Sino-Russian Survey of the Northwestern Boundary", invaded and occupied more than 440,000 square kilometers of western China;

The Sino-Russian Ili Treaty in 1881 is about 70,000 square kilometers;

In 1892, Tsarist Russia invaded and occupied the Sarekule RangeIn the west, the Pamir Plateau is more than 20,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory;

In 1911, Czarist Russia instigated independence, with an area of ​​1.5665 million square kilometers of Outer Mongolia;

In 1917, Tsarist Russia annexed the Tangnuwulianghai region of Mongolia, China, which is now the Republic of Tuva, Russia, covering 170,000 square kilometers.


In fact, the Qing Dynasty replaced the entire feudal history As mentioned earlier, since the establishment of the Qin Dynasty, China has been under the exchange rule of feudal dynasties for more than 2,000 years. Although the time span is so large,No matter the ruling mode or the social structure of the past dynasties, there is essentially no change, that is, "feudal despotism + farming civilization". Therefore, when the industrial civilization crazily hits, it is impossible to deal with the Western industrial civilization with Chinese traditional agricultural civilization. Regardless of the dynasty, if you encounter this kind of thing, failure is the only result. Even if you can achieve tactical victory in war, you cannot achieve an overall advantage in strategy.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Because of China's long-term self-sufficiency in agricultural civilization, it has determined that unless external forces interfere, it will be difficult for China to transition to commercial civilization or even industrial civilization. It must be another dynasty. The next dynasty went over. Therefore, when the advanced industrial civilization and the backward agricultural civilization collided fiercely, the agricultural civilization must slowly transition to the industrial civilization. During the transition period, war and bloodshed are inevitable.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?


Early Qing The massacre of 40 million people is purely false.

Due to the nationalist complex, many people still regard the Qing Dynasty as a dark dynasty equivalent to the Yuan Dynasty in which foreigners enslaved the Han. Some historians even excluded the Yuan and Qing dynasties from the Chinese dynasties.

But this is not the case. The Qing dynasty is not equal to the Yuan dynasty. The Yuan dynasty did not integrate into the Chinese civilization from beginning to end, until it was overthrown, it still retained itself The customs of the Mongols; moreover, during the Yuan Dynasty’s rule, the people were treated in different levels (which is roughly the same as the Indian caste system): the Mongols were ranked first as the ruling nationAccording to the sequence of the ethnic groups in the conquered area, they are divided into three levels: Semu, Han, and Southern. He also believes that the political treatment of the four classes is different, and they are treated differently in terms of appointment, imperial examination, and criminal law. The result was overthrown in less than a hundred years. Where did the Mongols come and go.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

The Qing Dynasty was different. From Nurhachi’s unification of women to the establishment of Jin to the Qing Dynasty’s entry into the Central Plains,Always maintain a gentle attitude. Before entering the Central Plains, the Manchus used the peace-marriage policy and included Monan Mongolia, now Inner Mongolia. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the reason why Inner Mongolia did not split with Outer Mongolia was the Manchu and Qing dynasty. The Manchu and Mongolian tribes were tightly tied together by blood, and cultural fusion and effective military management were added. From then on, Outer Mongolia was separated. The Outer Mongolia was so far away that the Qing dynasty was too weak to be able to lash out. Therefore, it was left in a state of high autonomy for a long time, and it was in harmony with the central government. As a result, as soon as the Qing Dynasty was over, it immediately slapped its butt and left.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Furthermore, the reason why the dynasty was overthrown is actually the division and fighting among the Han people. Because of the lack of unity , Gave the Manchu a chance to fight one by one, and slowly divide the internal splitting forces of the Han people. In the end, the Manchu fisherman profited and took the whole world.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

In the early Qing Dynasty, because it had just taken over the Ming dynasty and was a foreigner, it naturally encountered resistance everywhere. The horoscope "Expelling the Tartars and restoring China" was not originally created by Sun Yat-sen, and it had already screamed loudly in the early Qing Dynasty. In order to stabilize its rule, the Qing court committed many massacres. In fact, during each change of dynasty in history, people shed blood everywhere, but because this time the butcher was a Manchu, a foreigner, he was especially hated by people. Because of this, many uninformed historians added fuel, saying that the population of more than 50 million people at the end of the Ming Dynasty, because of the massacre of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, fell to more than 10 million in the early years of Kangxi, and the population dropped by ninety-nine percent.

I just want to say here: There are millions of people who have died, and the death of more than 40 million people is purely false! Readers, think about it, during the Anti-Japanese War, the Japanese devils invaded China for 14 years and invested more than 4 million troops., All kinds of advanced weapons were madly ravaged, and finally 35 million people died. During the entry into the customs in the early Qing Dynasty, there were only more than 200,000 Manchu tribes, and the Eight Banner Army was less than 100,000. They were cold weapons with spears and knives, and there were rebellious armed forces everywhere. Nanming still existed at that time. After finally digging a site, the Manchu rulers were too stable to be stable. Who would be so stupid to slaughter everywhere? How is this different from digging a grave? Besides, with this strength, he has to divide his troops to fight everywhere. Does he have the strength to slaughter so many people? Therefore, I believe that several million people must have died, and most of these people were troops on the battlefield, and some of them were killed by siege.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Therefore, for the change of dynasties between Ming and Qing Dynasties, war dead and turbulence are inevitable, and readers should not be too entangled in National complex, it is particularly cruel to believe that the Manchu is an outsider. To say more, the Ming Dynasty is not necessarily so good. Here are a few points: First: The royal family Zhu’s treatment is too luxurious From the beginning of Zhu Yuanzhang, it was stipulated that all descendants of the royal family should be supported by the state. This group of princes were distributed to all parts of the country. They did not need to do anything, and they were devoted to the generations and lived a life of drunken gold and gold. According to statistics, by the end of the Ming Dynasty. , Zhu Yuanzhang’s descendants actually multiplied to more than 2 million people,Every year the family spends 1/3 of the national treasury to support this bunch of waste. For the demise of the Ming Dynasty, these princes had great responsibility; Second: the ruling class was chaotic and corrupt. The emperor’s failure to go to court for more than ten or two decades can only happen in the Ming Dynasty. At the same time, the eunuchs are indulged, and the six authentic state institutions have become decorations, while the East and West factories have become the power center of the country in disguise. Can ordinary people not complain about such a ruling class? Third: The criminal law is too harsh and harsh. Readers who are interested can check on the Internet. The Ming Dynasty has the most comprehensive torture in Chinese history. The common people have lived in a fearful environment for a long time, and they dare not speak up.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?


What are the contributions of the Qing Dynasty?

Going back to the Qing Dynasty, the author objectively believes that among the dynasties of China, the Qing emperor is the most diligent and educated. Starting from Kangxi The penultimate emperor, Guangxu, was a monarch who worked diligently and wholeheartedly to seek the stable development of the country. The emperor of the Qing Dynasty was rarely a prodigal greed for pleasure... I say that there must be opposition here., Isn’t Qianlong a prodigal? The Qing Dynasty began to decline from him. However, the author corrects one point, Qianlong is not called a prodigal, he is just having fun. And as an emperor, he is also very accomplished, not an emperor who only enjoys and does not work.

So what contribution did the Qing Dynasty make? The author summarizes a few points here:

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

First: Maintain national unity. In the past dynasties, except for the Yuan Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty had the most extensive territory. From Shunzhi to Qianlong, over a hundred years before and after, the four generations of rulers took the maintenance of unity as their first responsibility. During the Shunzhi period: the Dalai Lama was designated as a Tibetan religious leader and established the Qing Dynasty's dominance over Tibet; during the Kangxi period: the Panchen Lama was continued to be designated as the reincarnated living Buddha, further establishing the relationship between the central and local governments. At the same time, it put down the San Francisco, unified Taiwan, resisted Tsarist Russia, signed the Nerchinsk Treaty, and put down Zhungar. In the mid-Kangxi period, the Qing dynasty's unified actions were basically completed, and a Qing empire that truly ruled the four directions was then considered to appear; during the Yongzheng period: Zhungeer's separatist forces were resurrected, and during the Yongzheng year, they used troops to the northwest, and finally suppressed Cewang Arabutan. The separatist forces with Lobzang Tenjin ensured the rule of the northwest. In the Yunnan-Guizhou ethnic minority areas, they also implemented the reform of the local government, banned the hereditary chieftain system, and strengthened the rule of the southwest region. During the Qianlong period, the Tianshan area was suppressed.Xiao Hezhuo, pacifying Jinchuan in western Sichuan and launching the Qing-Burma War, dispelled Burma’s northward expansion intention and included Burma into the Qing Dynasty’s tributary system... Regarding Qianlong’s achievements, you can check his “perfect martial arts” online. There is no shortage of water, but overall the unity of the country has been maintained.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Second: Build a truly unified and multi-ethnic country. I believe that readers are puzzled about this. Isn’t China a multi-ethnic country since ancient times? In fact it is not. Since most dynasties in Chinese history belonged to the Han dynasty, even if there were ethnic minorities within, they were never included in the nationality. Because the Han people have long regarded themselves as orthodox descendants of the Chinese civilization, ethnic minorities can only be regarded lightly as "barbarians." Because of this xenophobic complex, our unified dynasty has been a pure Han dynasty for a long time, and the surrounding minorities have long existed as independent regimes.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

For example, the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Sixteen Kingdoms in the Five Hushua Period, the orthodox dynasty can only be regarded as the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and the sixteen countries are regarded as It was a barbarian regime; during the Southern and Northern Song Dynasties, the surrounding Liao, Jin, Xixia, Tubo, Dali, and Mongolia were all regarded as foreign regimes. Only the Song Dynasty belonged to our history. In the Ming Dynasty, it directly affected the northern Mongolian region. Abandoned, so two foreign regimes of Oala and Tatar also appeared in the north. The rule of Tibet is only nominal, and it is incomparable with the strong rule of Tibet by the Qing Dynasty. This is the result of long-term rejection of foreigners, which can be It can be seen that before the Qing Dynasty, there was no real multi-ethnic country in China.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Readers should know that although the Han people have an absolute advantage in numbers on this land of China, we The traditional area is not vast. The area south of the Great Wall and east of Yungui in Gansu is the place where our Han people live forever. For details, you can refer to the territory of the Northern Song Dynasty. The vast areas of Northeast, Mongolia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Tibet have always It is not a place of Han people, but a place where ethnic minorities live. The Northeast is now dominated by Han people, mainly due to the several population migrations during the Qing Dynasty, and a large number of people in the Republic of China rushed to the east, which made Han people occupy todaymost. But other regions have not changed much, even today. China has a population of 1.4 billion, but do you know how many people are in these provinces? Inner Mongolia has an area of ​​1.18 million square kilometers and a population of 25 million; Xinjiang has an area of ​​1.66 million square kilometers and a population of 22 million; Tibet has an area of ​​1.22 million square kilometers and a population of 3 million; Qinghai has an area of ​​720,000 square kilometers and a population of 6 million; Gansu has an area of ​​450,000 square kilometers. , A population of 26 million. These are the largest ethnic minority provinces in China, with a total area of ​​5.25 million square kilometers and a total population of only over 80 million (this part of the population still accounts for a large proportion of Han people). More than 1.3 billion people in China live on 4 million square kilometers of land.

Therefore, the Qing Dynasty was very successful in maintaining national unity. The rulers of the Qing Dynasty were ethnic minorities, and the failure of the Yuan DynastyThe case is first, so it knows that if internal unity is not maintained, it may be driven back outside the customs someday. Therefore, if there is no Qing Dynasty's efforts in this respect, when the Qing Dynasty is destroyed, and the surrounding ethnic minorities have re-divided into their own affairs, Outer Mongolia is a living example. Perhaps today, our China is left with the territory of the Northern Song Dynasty.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

Third, land productivity is obviousThe rapid growth and rapid population growth have laid the foundation for China's "big". I believe it is time for readers to scold me again. But it is true that China, as a country where the agricultural civilization has developed, has a fundamental guarantee of population. But for thousands of years, China's population has not grown much, and has remained at a very stable number for a long time. During the period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in the Western Han Dynasty, the population of China had reached more than 50 million. As a result, by the end of the Ming Dynasty, it had a population of 50 or 60 million. However, in the Qing Dynasty, the population experienced explosive growth. Kangxi reached 100 million in 43 years, 200 million in Qianlong 27 years, more than 300 million in Qianlong 55 years, and Daoguang broke through 400 million in 14 years, and was overthrown by the Qing Dynasty. At that time, China's population was already 430 million. During this period, we also experienced the turmoil of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom War. If there were no Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, I believe there would be 500 million.

Someone asked, why did the population grow so fast during the Qing Dynasty?

First: At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, a large number of Ming serfs were liberated and turned into self-cultivating farmers. The confiscated Ming Dynasty Wangzhuang official land was returned to the people for farming, and the newly reclaimed land was not Taxation greatly encouraged the people’s enthusiasm for labor; second: the unprecedented vastness of the territory and the long-term stability brought about by national unity also stimulated population growth; third: the large-scale reclamation of arable land, at the end of the Ming Dynasty, the area of ​​arable land in the country was approximately 800 million mu. In the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the area of ​​arable land increased to 1.2 billion mu, an increase of 1.5 times. Fourth: The rulers of the Qing Dynasty attached great importance to the development of agriculture, and the policy of “emphasizing agriculture and suppressing business” was also the most important of all dynasties. As a result, water conservancy projects were built in various places, rice planting and double-season planting techniques were promoted nationwide, and food production increased rapidly. At the same time, imported high-yield crops of corn, potatoes and sweet potatoes were introduced and planted on a large scale. Everyone knows that these crops are very unacceptableIt is resistant to cold, heat, dryness and humidity, and to a large extent makes use of dry land that was not used in large quantities before. By the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty, the total grain output of the country was nearly five times that of the Ming Dynasty's heyday (the population was about 80 million at that time).

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

There is another point, although the Qing Dynasty emphasized agriculture and suppressed business. However, due to the rapid increase in population, business is alsoVigorous development, whether it is domestic commerce or foreign trade. These business gangs of Shanxi merchants and micro-businesses were made bigger and stronger during the Qing Dynasty. Moreover, the prosperity of commerce has undoubtedly improved the overall economic level of society. In addition to prosperous overseas trade, the Qing Dynasty not only prospered the cities, but also the countryside. The annual fiscal revenue of the Qing Dynasty was also four or five times that of the Ming Dynasty. It can be said that in the feudal history of more than two thousand years, the Qing Dynasty is definitely the pinnacle of all dynasties.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

However, the Qing Dynasty also had a lot of bad sides, but nothing is perfect. The Qing Dynasty was a feudal dynasty that developed completely in accordance with the track of Chinese agricultural civilization, so I said that the Qing Dynasty was the pinnacle of China's feudal dynasty. To demand that a feudal dynasty enter the capitalist society of industrial civilization is tantamount to seeking fish from a tree. However, some people in modern times blindly shift the responsibility of China's lagging behind the West to the Qing Dynasty, and even to the ethnic minorities, so as to burden the backwardness of China's agricultural civilization. This is undoubtedly very irrational.

Was the Qing Dynasty really useless? How to positively evaluate the Qing Dynasty?

In modern times, although we have suffered from foreign invasion, the worst result is It's just a semi-colonial state, unlike India, which is completely colonized. This is because the Qing Dynasty lays a large enough territory and our total population is such a large. This undoubtedly broadens the space for China's strategic transformation, making China even weaker. Foreigners can’t completely digest China.

Nowadays, the reason why China can be called a great country is that the development of technology and economy plays an important role. The author believes that the vast Land and huge peopleThe total population is the fundamental indicator. What do you think?

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