Today I’m going to talk to you: why people don’t think so much about the Qing Dynasty What kind of dynasty is it? At present, from the Internet, the Qing Dynasty is not only a problem of low evaluation, it is already synonymous with shame! In fact, modern people’s evaluation of the Qing Dynasty is more of a perceptual evaluation. After all, in the Qing Dynasty, foreign dynasties ruledAnd since the Opium War, the Chinese people have been ravaged by imperialism for nearly a hundred years! This period of history is a history of shame for the entire Chinese people. If you evaluate the Qing Dynasty with this sentiment, you can imagine the result.
But history needs to be evaluated objectively and truthfully, so let’s talk about what kind of dynasty the Qing Dynasty was. Based on people's low appraisal of the Qing Dynasty, the author concluded that there are three main reasons. For these three reasons, many people dislike the Qing Dynasty. But even so, we cannot deny its many contributions to China because of dislike.
FirstSay three main reasons why people "dislike" the Qing Dynasty?
1. Shaving hair is easy to wear and it hurts. Han people who refuse to shave or wear clothes will raise a butcher knife to kill them. Furthermore, shaved hair and easy clothes have caused immeasurable mental harm to the Chinese with Han as the main body and severely damaged China's cultural heritage for thousands of years.
2. The identity of foreign invaders and the bloody massacre occurred when they entered the Central Plains, resulting in hatred of Manchu and Han Deepen. When the rulers of the Qing Dynasty ruled outside the pass, they first massacred and enslaved the Han people in Liaodong. Later, after entering the pass, they raised butcher knives to intimidate the Han people. The three massacres in Jiading and the Ten Days in Yangzhou were countless. The massacre of the rulers caused a sharp decline in the population of the Han Chinese in China, and it also left a deep hatred. Therefore, many people now hate the rulers of the Qing Dynasty (I doubt this, let’s see the analysis below).
3. Being bullied by foreign powers in modern times Such unequal treaties have reduced China to a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country. People’s lives are in dire straits, and more importantly, they have ceded millions of square kilometers of territory.
However, the Qing dynasty is China’s great fortune. Why do you say that, and Let’s talk about it in detail.
Invasion, the late Qing Dynasty was dark
Since the establishment of the Qin Dynasty, China has beenAll were alternate rule of feudal dynasties. The characteristics of the feudal dynasty are great unification, Confucianism, farming civilization, and social stability but few breakthroughs. This kind of feudal society is very strong in China. Assuming that there is no major invasion of foreign civilization, I believe that it will continue to rotate from dynasty to dynasty.
In the Qing Dynasty, the West, which had been ignorant and backward for a long time, suddenly opened up. First, it reformed itself in the political system, and promoted the liberation of labor through the reform of the system. In the end, the popularization of machines replaced manual work, thereby realizing a major upgrade of social productivity. This was the first industrial revolution, which took about a hundred years.
Know that the first industrial revolutionZhang synchronously. After all major western countries have realized industrialized societies, they found that the domestic market could not satisfy them with excess productivity. In order to further develop, it is necessary to expand the market, solve the problem of commodity sales and raw material sources, so as to realize the redevelopment of the industry, so aggression becomes their only means of expansion.
South Asia is the first to suffer in Asia. Why not say India but South Asia? I will talk about it below. At that time, the largest country in South Asia was the Mughal Empire, occupying most of the central and northern parts of the entire South Asian subcontinent. On the Deccan Peninsula in the south is a country established by the Maratha and Mysore people. Because of the long-term hostility with the Mughal Empire, they often fight each other. At the same time, foreign Afghans continue to invade the Mughal borders, and these hostile forces have seriously depleted the national power of the Mughal Empire. Moreover, the Mughal Empire is also in a state of fragmentation due to its large number of ethnic groups. Many Tubangs and tribes are still independent and semi-independent. In the 18th century, the Marata people rose strongly and their forces invaded the empire, and the Mughal emperor even became the puppet of the Marata people. So when the British came in the mid-18th century, The Mughal Empire was dying, weak, and unable to withstand the menacing British.
The British defeated the Mughal empire’s army easily and cleverly Using the complex ethnic contradictions within South Asia to provoke their civil war, they gradually controlled the entire South Asia and established a huge colonial rule——British India. Objectively speaking, the unification of South Asia is entirely due to British colonial rule. The division and independence of India and Pakistan in the middle of the 20th century was another evil made by Britain. McMahon dashed lines according to the picture, abruptly dividing the South Asian continent into two countries, splitting Pakistan into two parts, and also dividing China's southern Tibet into the scope of India. Before leaving, he would also provoke China, India and India. Pakistan’s territorial conflict.
Speaking of which, after the British occupied the entire South Asia, South Asia became the UK’s commodity dumping market and raw material supply. Here is another one The key thing-Poppy! Poppy is a unique plant that grows in this region of Bangladesh and Myanmar. The locals have a long tradition of smoking poppy, just as a natural medicine to relieve fatigue. The British I quickly discovered this business opportunity and began to grow opium poppy on a large scale and improve its purity to make opium. Opium first made the South Asians more occupied, and at the same time the British used it themselves and brought it back to Europe.
Speaking of trade, since the Ming Dynasty, there was trade between China and the West. Trade in the Qing Dynasty was even more frequent. However, for hundreds of years, this trade was mostly one-way trade. What does it mean? China was only responsible for exporting a large number of specialty products such as tea, porcelain and silk, but there were not many goods that could be imported from the West. The main representative of Western trade is the United Kingdom. Due to the long-term trade deficit, a large amount of silver has flowed into China, and it can hardly bear it. So in 1793, the British King sent a Macartney mission to the Qing Dynasty.In addition to celebrating the birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the supreme ruler at the time, the DPRK also wanted to discuss business matters. You must know that at that time, Britain had already established a colonial empire that never sets in the sun. In order to be able to communicate with the Qing Dynasty, the United Kingdom really had its blood capital at the time. It showed its utmost sincerity to have an equal dialogue with China. We can see from the gift list: steam engine, cotton spinning machine, loom, hot air balloon , Luxurious four-wheeled carriages, clocks, pocket watches, guns and ammunition. It also includes 8 state-of-the-art field guns and a model of the world’s largest battleship Monarch. In order to flatter Qianlong, the King of England also specially made a set of sterling silver solar system kinematics.
As a result, Qianlong accepted the bunch of gifts as tributes with peace of mind. Before it was over, Magartney’s trade proposal was rejected on the spot, and he also said "dominant words." Everyone should remember: "The Heavenly Dynasty is rich in resources and has everything. Goods are always available."
Qianlong arrogantly regarded Britain as a peaceThe vassal states such as Xian Ryukyu regard this British talks as an act of tribute. Since it is a tribute, it must be a tribute. Britain sent more than 600 gifts from two ships, and Qianlong returned gifts from seven ships in Britain, more than 3,000! It's nothing but tea, silk, porcelain, jade, etc. Macartney was quite disappointed with this trip to China. His evaluation of China was: "China is just a dilapidated warship. The reason why it did not sink is all because of the shrewd captain. Once an incompetent person leaves. It will not be able to withstand storms and rains."
Because of the supremacy and arrogance of the Qing rulers, the Qing Dynasty lost its strength in its heyday. An opportunity for self-improvement. If Emperor Qianlong realized the huge benefits brought by these industrial civilizations, he would slowlyIndustrial civilization is close, and Western powers have no chance to invade China. China may slowly transform itself into a "monarchical parliamentary system" similar to Britain. But history has no if, tragedy has come.
Because of the long-term huge trade deficit between China and the West, the "agricultural civilization and self-sufficiency" social structure of the Qing Dynasty made Western industrial goods impossible to sell. Go in. In desperation, Britain thought of a "damage move" to get opium in. Everyone knows that opium is a kind of drug. Although compared with the current drugs, it is much less harmful, but if you consume more, you will become addicted. Since the late Qianlong period, opium has flowed into China. The Chinese quickly realized this "good thing". Opium circulated rapidly in China and the demand was increasing. At the same time, not only the British brought opium from Bangladesh and Burma into China, but the United States alsoTurkey imported opium to China, and Tsarist Russia imported opium to northern China in Central Asia. China became the largest market for opium in Western powers.
Due to the sharp increase in opium imports, the The status of trade has completely changed. Britain has changed from the original import super market to export super market, but ChinaOn the contrary, it caused a large outflow of silver. According to statistics, between 1820 and 1840, the outflow of silver from China was about 100 million taels. The continuous outflow of silver caused by the massive import of opium has begun to disrupt the Qing Dynasty’s treasury and currency circulation, bringing the Qing Dynasty’s economy on the verge of collapse. What's more serious is that the proliferation of opium has greatly damaged the physical and mental health of addicts. If it is allowed to develop, it will inevitably endanger the Chinese nation.
So there is Lin Zexu’s Humen Cigarette Sale. This is China’s own legitimate means of safeguarding national security, but the British regard the Chinese people’s anti-smoking campaign as an infringement of private property, and they find it intolerable. We can also see it as an excuse for the empire to launch a war against China when the sun never sets. In 1840, the British-initiated war of aggression against China broke out, which is known as the first Opium War in history. The war lasted for two years. British troops landed from Guangzhou and penetrated most of China's coastal areas. As a result, the Qing Dynasty failed miserably and was forced to sign the first unequal treaty "Nanjing Treaty" on August 29, 1842!
The signing of the "Nanjing Treaty" officially marked the late Qing Dynasty, and China also began to become a semi-colony.
Because of the first Opium War, the Western powers suddenly realized that the Qing Dynasty was only big and weak A decadent country in China is completely vulnerable to industrial civilization. The following history is only more than a hundred years away from the present, I believe readers will also know it very well, and it is a mess. No matter the big country or the small country, all come to bully, all kinds of inequalityThe treaties were signed over and over, and the territory was cut away by millions.
When the Qing Dynasty is overthrown, it will be counted together with Outer Mongolia,China has lost 3.36 million kilometers of territory, of which Mao Xiong is the culprit! I made a list, you can check it out:
In 1840, it was invaded and occupied by British India in Ladakh and southern Tibet, totaling 98,000 square kilometers;
1858 "Sino-Russian Ahui Treaty" , Invaded and cut the land of 600,000 square kilometers north of Heilongjiang;
In 1860, the "Sino-Russian Beijing Treaty" cut and occupied 400,000 square kilometers of land east of the Ussuri River;
In 1864, "Sino-Russian Survey of the Northwestern Boundary", invaded and occupied more than 440,000 square kilometers of western China;
The Sino-Russian Ili Treaty in 1881 is about 70,000 square kilometers;
In 1892, Tsarist Russia invaded and occupied the Sarekule RangeIn the west, the Pamir Plateau is more than 20,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory;
In 1911, Czarist Russia instigated independence, with an area of 1.5665 million square kilometers of Outer Mongolia;
In 1917, Tsarist Russia annexed the Tangnuwulianghai region of Mongolia, China, which is now the Republic of Tuva, Russia, covering 170,000 square kilometers.