Tang goods, as the name suggests, refer to Chinese goods. In this article, it refers to the Tang Dynasty manufacturing. In the middle school textbooks, we have all learned that the Japanese admired the culture, politics, and economic power of the kingdom of heaven. We have sent Tang ambassadors to China to learn the advanced science and culture at that time. It goes without saying that they were influenced by Chinese culture. Not to mention that it is like smoke and sea, it is also like a horse hair. However, almost all textbooks invariably ignore how Japan terminated its contacts with the Tang Dynasty: "abolishing the Tang Dynasty", a major event that had a decisive influence on Japanese culture in the history of China and Japan.
Japan and China’s exchanges are based on the Sui and Tang Dynasties The most prosperous and comprehensive eastward spread of Chinese culture also began during this period. In fact, during the Sui Dynasty, Japan had already sent an envoy to the Sui Dynasty. The first envoy to the Sui Dynasty was sent during the first conquest of Silla by Prince Shotoku. Shidang pushed the eighth year of the ancient emperor in AD 600. According to the "Sui Shu·Dongyi Biography", it says: "In the 20th year of the Emperor Kaihuang, the Hou Wang was surnamed Amei, and the word was Doris Pigu, and the name was Abejimi, and the envoy was sent. Que. In 630 years after 30 years, Japan sent its first batch of envoys to the Tang Dynasty. Until the last batch of 838 years, after a long period of 238 years, Japan has gradually matured in terms of politics, ideology, and culture, and has begun to enter independent local culture.化 stage. In the first year of Qianning of Tang Zhaozong and the 6th year of Kanpei in Japan, that is, in 894 AD, Michizaki Sugawara, the newly appointed Tang ambassador, cites a report written in the scholarly monk of the Tang Dynasty, and played the emperor. He suggested that the emperor should be stopped on the grounds that "the Tang Dynasty is withered" and "the sea and land are more resistant". Dispatch Tang Envoy. Emperor Uta accepted this proposal, and the relationship between the two countries was terminated.
The "abolishment of the Tang Dynasty" can be said to be a "boycott of the Tang Dynasty" movement initiated by the upper-level rule. In the second half of the ninth century, China had the Anshi Rebellion and the Huangchao Uprising successively. In addition to the separatism of the various regions, the Tang dynasty became weaker than the west, and it was crumbling, that is, the "Tang dying" in the Sugawara Michizane report. However, as the Japanese government implemented the closed-door policy, China and Japan were terminated. After all trade transactions. The relationship between the people of the two countries has not been interrupted. There are constant Japanese monks and scholars. He accepts that Chinese or Korean merchant ships continue to come to the Tang Dynasty to study, and the people and nobles are very fond of "Tangwu", which can be said to be worship. Like todayChina loves "Japanese goods". Therefore, smuggling came into being, so that many of the wealthy families in Central China, the Four Kingdoms, and Jiuzhou became the protectors of smugglers, and they publicly levied taxes on smugglers, known as "Tang tax." Judging from the non-governmental economic and cultural exchanges between the two countries and the domestic needs, it seems that the reasons for terminating Sino-Japanese relations are not sufficient, but this is only a superficial reason. The more profound reason is that the Japanese government has taken economic and cultural considerations. .
Since the large-scale import of Tang culture by foreign students and scholarly monks in the Nara period, the Japanese people's admiration for the Tang Dynasty has reached its extreme. Not only did the cultural relics copy China, but they also liked the goods produced in China very much. A large number of Tang goods entered Japan, and Japan has always been in a state of surpassing in foreign trade. With such a large amount of silver flowing out, the local economy cannot develop and faces collapse.
Moreover, there are not only goods, but also "Tang money" in the imported products. Japanese money at the timeCompared with Tang money, there are various shortcomings. Not only is it incomparable in terms of quality, but there are also many inconveniences in circulation. Therefore, Tang Qian has two advantages and is very popular in Japan, which directly caused the Japanese currency system to become more chaotic. This is undoubtedly a crisis for Japan’s economy and politics. It's worse.
If you want to change this state, you must change Japan's backward state in terms of commodities, finance, and culture, but this will not be effective in the short term. However, it is not difficult to prevent foreign political and economic threats first from the policy point of view. Therefore, the reason why Emperor Udo ordered the abolition of the Tang Dynasty may lie in this.
Although it is a political strategy to abolish Tang Tang, culture is a sign of politics. Therefore, during the Heian period, Japanese culture showed the characteristics of getting rid of the influence of Tang culture and striving to establish its own cultural style. In fact, Heian culture was also the beginning of the real development of Japanese local culture.
First of all, in the text, the Japanese used part of the Chinese characters to omit or only use the radicals to create the kana text, which is equivalent to the phonetic alphabet. Among them, the radicals in block letters are called katakana, and the radicals in cursive script are called hiragana. Kana was very popular in the Heian period, but before that, a large number of Chinese characters were used. After all, Chinese characters are foreign characters. In Japan, those who are proficient in Chinese are often limited to nobles and monks. It is difficult for the general public to learn or unconditionally learn Chinese. , And the appearance of phonetic characters like kana has allowed cultural knowledge to be spread on a larger scale, thus laying the foundation for the localization of Japanese culture.
With the advent of pseudonyms, Japanese literature in the true sense began to appear on the stage. In the early days of Heian, Chinese literature was still in vogue, while Japanese songs declined. For example, Sugawara Michizaki, who advocated the abolition of the Tang Dynasty in the previous article, is a scholar who is proficient in Chinese.It’s also known as the top grade in Tang poetry. So the early stage of Heian is called "the dark of the country wind" in the Tang poetry. Times". But with the decline of the Tang Dynasty and the prevalence of pseudonyms, in the late Heian period, Japanese literature gradually got rid of the influence of Chinese literature. Poems written entirely in pseudonyms appeared, the most famous novel in the history of Japanese literature, The Tale of Genji "It is also in this period.
At the same time, Japanese calligraphy has also entered the era of Japanese style. Japanese calligraphy began in the Nara period and developed in the Heian period. The initial period was Saga, Tachibana, and The Tang-style period represented by Kukai’s “three-strokes” took Jin and Tang calligraphy as models. The subsequent “Sanji” era represented by Xingcheng, Daofeng, and Zuori was the beginning of the Japanese era. The style of Tang Dynasty turned into a Japanese style, forming a plump, round, elegant and fluent Japanese style calligraphy.With the further development of style calligraphy, kana calligraphy also gradually formed. With the growth of waka and pseudonym literature, he soon further refined in art, which led to his golden age.
In addition, since the Nara period, Buddhism has flourished, and Japan's inherent Shinto has to be subordinate to Buddhism. But to the "national style era" in the late Heian period. Therefore, Japanese culture began to resurrect, and Shinto also became active. In the 6th year of Baogui (AD 775), the imperial court ordered the ministers of various countries to repair the shrine for worship. It also issued an explicit order prohibiting the holding of banquets and singing and dancing during the sacrifice. The respect for the gods is also shown in architecture and sculpture. The architectural style of the temple during the Heian period has established a simple and beautiful Japanese style. If there is a garden in front of the temple, there is an island in the pond, and the bridge on the island is very beautiful.
The mainstream paintings, music and tea ceremony in Japan during this period also showed the unique temperament of Japanese culture.
It can be seen that the abolition of the Tang Dynasty policy has had a profound impact on Japan’s cultural economy. (Source: Phoenix.com)
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