The battle of Guandu was a strategic decisive battle between Yuan Shao and Cao Cao. In this battle, Yuan Shao had more than 100,000 troops, occupying an absolute military advantage, but what Yuan Shao did not expect was that Cao Cao would sneak attack on his grain and grass camp. Wu Chao, and then the army was defeated in chaos, and before the war, his two great advisers, Jushou Tian Fengdu, told him not to fight Cao Cao in the main decisive battle, but to implement the strategy of exhausting Cao Cao and use small elite troops to harass Cao Cao. Rest and recuperate, so Yuan Shao can basically win.
Actually, Yuan Shao’s desperate move and Jushou Tianfeng’s tired Cao’s strategy are both feasible from a military point of view. Jushou Tianfeng and the others considered it. It was Yuan Shao's overall environment that was better than Cao Cao. After Yuan Shao defeated Gongsun Zan, he had a relatively stable rear area, while Cao Cao was in the Fourth World War, and there were basically hostile forces around him. Compared with Yuan Shao, Cao Cao had much fewer troops and materials that could be used on the northern main battlefield. Therefore, the two talents Tian and Ju set up an outside attack strategy, mainly to attack → fatigue, to fatigue → decline, and then use Yi (Yuan) to Lao (Cao) to defeat Cao Cao at a minimum cost. This was a recognition of Cao Cao. They thought that they were not sure if the soldiers attacked Cao head-on. But this is the biggest crux of the problem. In fact, Yuan Shao knew that Tian Feng and Ju's method was a perfect solution.
However, Yuan Shao also understands Cao Cao’s abilities, so he doesn’t want to give Cao Cao a chance to stabilize his surrounding area. What's more, Cao Cao has an ace Han Xiandi in his hands. That was the emperor. In theory, Yuan Shao and Cao Cao were his courtiers. If Cao Cao used the emperor to suppress him during these years of recuperation, Yuan Shao would not know how to hold on to himself. Because the imperial edict is weakened, and the imperial imperial is the imperial court., Everyone gets punishable. This is different from Liu and Xiang, because Xiang Yu killed Emperor Yi and lost his moral commanding heights, which made it possible for Liu Bang to unite with other princes. The external situation of Yuan Shao before the Guandu War was extremely similar to Xiang Yu. So Yuan Shao dare not bet on these three years. Tian Feng and Jushou were loyal to Yuan Shao. In theory, Yuan Shao was loyal to Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty. In the military, Yuan may have a variety of methods against Cao, but in politics, Yuan Shao who has lost the Emperor Xian is a dead game. And in fact, the strength of the two sides is not so great, just because Cao Cao is surrounded by enemies, and there are not so many soldiers and horses that can be mobilized, it makes people think that Yuan Shao's strength is much greater than Cao Cao. Cao Cao has 3 states and Yuan Shao has 4 states.
And Yuan Shao’s advantage lies in hard power, what is hard power? The supply of food and grass, the deployment of troops, and frontline confrontation are actually a better method for Yuan Shao to defeat Cao Cao. If he attacks Cao Cao’s field camp with all his strength, he can also win. But there will be greater losses. Because the offensive needs the force to defend. Many times the Fang’s. And Yuan Shao’s superior cavalry can’t give full play to the advantage. Yuan Shao was unwilling to take the initiative to turn to the fighting strategy on the premise of the unexpected bankruptcy of the down strategy, and this defeated.
Another point is against Yuan Shao, Yuan Shao relies on four The three princes of the world gathered a large number of nobles, and their strength was greatly increased in a short time. The disadvantage is that his subordinates represent the interests of the nobles, and his subordinates inevitably have selfish intentions. Yuan Shao’s counsellors are divided into two factions and they have come up with good ideas. , There are also bad ideas for private fights, Yuan Shao can’t tell, and even fails. That’s why Yuan Shao’s defeat can fall apart. At the same time, this system also determines his strength lies in the gathering of nobles rather than Whether the food is sufficient and whether the soldiers are elite, similar to the status of the emperor ZhouCompared with Cao Cao, he is not sticking to one pattern to lower talents. The power and government orders are concentric. Even if the war is defeated, the reason for a comeback is that. Yuan Shao's ability to gather nobles in his territory has been fixed, no matter how hard it is to improve his strength, but Cao Cao can be more sophisticated and well-stocked, it is hard to say how to drag it down, so Yuan Shao is eager to fight.
In fact, on the issue of whether to fight or not, Yuan Shao and Tian FengWe can better understand it separately. What Yuan Shao sees is that Cao Cao's momentum is fierce and there is bound to be a battle. It is better to take advantage of my advantage and defeat him. As family leaders, Tian Feng and others saw that they had to pay for the war, and the family was waiting to be fed and needed to recuperate. If you think maliciously, you can compare the attitude of the Southern gentry to war in the Northern Song Dynasty. It is good to win Yuan Shao. The gentry in these rooted places cannot migrate on a large scale. As long as the surrounding environment is good, they certainly don't want to fight.
The advice given by Tian Feng and Ju to Yuan Shao is actually very clear, avoiding a strategic decisive battle with Cao Cao, and using the economic strength and comprehensive national strength stronger than Cao Cao to drag Cao Cao died. Yuan Shao didn't listen, but after experiencing several local battles in Yanjin, Yuan Shao used the two reasonable suggestions, which was to fight Cao Cao and almost won. But the key point is that Yuan Shao chose Guandu at that time instead of Liyang as suggested by Tian Feng and Jushou. As the front moved forward, Yuan Shao chose Wuchao as the station for replenishment, which gave Cao Cao the attack on Wuchao. If you follow the advice of Tian Feng and others, if you station troops in Liyang, the supply route is short and the food station is located behind. Even if Cao Cao obtains information, it is difficult to have the opportunity to go deep behind the Yuan Jun front and carry out an attack. This small change On the contrary, it affected the entire Guandu battle.
So Yuan Shao’s failure was accidental, and of course it was also related to his habit of employing people. In fact, Yuan Shao cannot say that there is something wrong with Wuchao’s grain harvesting. With Wuchao’s forces at the time, unless Cao Cao’s main force is used up, it would be difficult to destroy the Wuchao granary in a short time, but the fault lies in Yuan Shao’s use of Chunyuqiong. Yuan Shaojun’s status is actually quite high. He was born in the eighth captain of XiyuanShao Cao Cao leveled his rank, and later chased Yuan Shao, and Zhang Yun had a higher status in terms of seniority. The reason why Cao Cao was able to raid Wuchao successfully, Chun Yuqiong could not shirk his responsibility. Of course he was not drunk, he First saw that Cao had few soldiers, he went out to meet the enemy and was defeated, but he still underestimated the enemy, and then Cao Jun's reckless onslaught of the camp, Chun Yuqiong was also not ruthless enough at the critical moment, unable to control the situation, and eventually defeated and captured, and was captured. Cao Cao beheaded. It can only be said that in the battle of Guandu, the fate belongs to Cao Cao.