In our intuitive experience, from North America to Europa, it is bound to cross the Atlantic Ocean. However, this is only limited by the expansion of the map along the equator. In fact, when we think about transcontinental paths, we tend to ignore the fact that the earth exists as a sphere. In reality, if you take the Arctic route, sometimes you will reach Europe faster from North America.
This point, in addition to today's application on the routes of aircraft and civilian ships, was also used for military transportation. In the early days of World War II, before the United States formally entered the war, it facilitated the use of Arctic routes to transport leased materials for Britain, the Soviet Union and other allied countries. For this reason, while the German army was mainly attacking the front of the Soviet Union, it also formulated an operational plan to cut off its Arctic route.
In order to put the Soviet Union into a passive situation, the Germans decided to attack the only non-freezing port in the Soviet Arctic Circle: Murmansk. This place is the end point for the Allied forces to transport leased materials on the Arctic route, and various strategic materials are sent to all parts of the Soviet Union through this place. Thus, the capture of Murmansk became the most important plan for the German army to respond to the frontal forces.
It is the most effective and direct method to directly attack the port by the navy. However, due to the important strategic position of the port, even the British, which is no longer the "Empire of the Sun Never Set", still dispatched fleets to cruise nearby. According to this, the German army formulated the "Silver Fox" plan and decided to attack in three directions. One way is the northern line, from Norway through FinlandLan reached the Kola Peninsula along the coast of the Barents Sea. The second is the center line. The 36th Army, composed of approximately two German infantry divisions and one Finnish infantry division, marched east from Rovaniemi and cut off the railway near the port of Kandalaksha in the White Sea. The last is the southern front, where the Finnish 3rd Army and the 36th Army marched in parallel to launch an auxiliary offensive towards Ukta and Kemu.
In May 1941, the German army launched a land operation. In the attack on the Port Northern Army, the Germans used only two divisions, and initially only one cavalry regiment was used to attack the city. When the two divisions put all their strength into it, they had already missed the opportunity. During this period, the Germans launched an air offensive and eventually blew up three-quarters of the buildings in the city. Although Murmansk was firmly guarded, due to the destruction of facilities, the Soviet army had to transfer the icebreaker and use the port slightly to the east as a transportation fulcrum. After this campaign, both sides failed to fully achieve their strategic goals.
The following year, Germany pointed its sword at ships in the Arctic waters. They want to use the "wolves" to fight to cut off the transportation of supplies on this route. At first, the Allied transport forces were not discovered by the Germans by changing their routes. It was not until December 1941 that the German air force and submarines began to attack the transport ships and the Allied escort fleet. Under the combined naval and air attacks of the German forces, the fleet of the Arctic route suffered a major blow. Starting in 1942, the German army began to dispatch various submarines and large surface warships. In August of that year alone, three large ships and two barges were sunk in the Soviet Union.
When fighting in the Arctic, the field of vision The limited activity time is very serious, and meteorological work is more important than other areas. From 1942 to 1944, the German army sent a number of submarines to cruise in the Kara waters. Their purpose is to intercept the Soviet radio communications, and at the same time transfer the Xindi Islands and the polar regions of the Kara SeaThe station was regarded as the target of the attack to prevent the Soviet army from obtaining weather information.
The German army believes that as long as the battle is successful and the operation of the Northern Sea Route is destroyed, the balance of victory in the war can be turned to its side. On July 27, August 25, and September 8, 1942, the Germans used submarines to destroy Cape Gerania and Uyetiniye Island at the northern end of the Klein Kalmakul and Novaya Zemlya. Soviet polar station and hydrological ice reconnaissance aircraft. On September 18 of the following year, a German submarine destroyed the Polar Station on the Island of Truth. A few days later, they attacked the polar station on the east coast of the Xindi Islands.
Between 1942 and 1944, the Allied material transport fleet suffered varying degrees of losses. In the encounter in 1942, the Allied PQ-17 fleet was devastated.This time, in order to attract the main German naval force "Tirpitz" battleship, the British army dispatched the fleet to attack all 34 escort ships. Unfortunately, under the cooperation of the German sea and air, the British army lost 23 Ship. The Arctic route had to be interrupted for three months.
But the German army has never been able to dominate the Arctic route. The German army’s lack of understanding of the weather in the Arctic sea eventually led to The failure of the Arctic battlefield. And the Allied fleet gradually strengthened with the development of the war. By the end of World War II, the Allied escort fleet had already been equipped with escort aircraft carriers. In this case, the German plan could only Failed.