On the northern shore of the Black Sea In the mountains of the Caucasus, the slave trade is a profitable business. At least since the time of the ancient Greek city-states, this type of industry has flourished in the Black Sea coast area. Even in the modern times when humanism appeared, the local people could not get rid of the slave economyDemand. As for the buyers who support this inhumane business, it is the labor force of many backward countries who are eager for it.
Mature international market
After the Fourth Crusade, the Genoese began to break into the Black Sea, which was regarded as a ban by Byzantium . In a short time, the Byzantine separatist forces and other Italian maritime republics also joined in. Multi-party slaves, reorganizing a new international slave trade.
Kaffa was established as an important colonial city in 1266. Genoese explorers signed an agreement with the Mongolian Great Khan of the Golden Horde, making it their largest base in the Black Sea region. It also became an Italian city-state. , Byzantine Greece, and the trade hub of Eastern Europe.
In addition to natural materials such as fur, ore, wood, and grainSource, Italian adventurers will also kidnap Mongolian, Turkic, and Russian populations from the steppe zone. During this period, the Great Khan of the Golden Horde felt deeply the threat of the loss of troops and the dissatisfaction of the people, and in 1307 found an excuse to expel all Genoese. But by 1312, economic pressure forced the new Khan to ask the Italians to return to Kafa to continue business.
Some Spanish and English travellers who came to the East also recorded the situation of the slave market in Kafa and brought the female slaves back to Western Europe. As a traditional large importer of slaves, Mamluk Egypt will specially select young people who are suitable for fighting from the Caucasus and serve as alternate candidates for slave soldiers. In 1291, Mamluk attacked the last crusader city-Acre. There are many soldiers from the Caucasus in the army, all sold to Egypt by Genoese.
The development model of the Crimean Khanate
Except for Italians,The Crimean and Nogai Khanates that later appeared also regularly plundered the grasslands of South Russia. The results of their hard work are the most important source of supply for the white slave market.
This Tatar country in Crimea was first organized by the power contenders of the Golden Horde. At first it was an alliance of tribes, which was presided over by the Hanat nobles, and followed the Code of Genghis Khan. With the strong intervention of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the peninsula of the Great Khan was under the direct control of Constantinople. Other parts of the Khanate were also influenced by the Ottomans and became a veritable whip of Turkey.
Since the Quran states that Muslims cannot be enslaved to each other, only those former Muslims who converted under the pressure of the enemy can be used. This provided excellent theoretical support for the robbery of the Crimean Khanate. As the main buyer, the Ottoman Empire needed various serfs and labor in Anatolia, Cyprus and other places. Otherwise, they cannot engage in economic production and handicraft manufacturing. Under the instigation of Sudan, the kidnapping of the Crimean Khanate became a basic policy and an important source of economic resources, far exceeding the ordinary industrial and commercial agricultural output in the region.
Once there are major policies in the Ottoman Empire, supply and demand in the slave market will be affected. For example, after the Empire conquered Constantinople in 1453, there was an urgent need for a large amount of food to support the urban population. Therefore, the economic farms near Anatolia and Edirne are required to have greater output. Subsequently, Ottoman looted the population in Eastern Europe by controlling the Crimean Khanate, filling the labor gap in the two regions. Especially in Anatolia, Ottoman informalA series of Jerelli uprisings launched by the soldiers led to population loss and thieves rampage. The feudal masters here even more needed agricultural slaves from the northern shore of the Black Sea.
So, throughout the 15-18th century, Poland-Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus in Eastern Europe lost 200 -3 million population. Since 1649, the not-so-rich early Tsarist Russia had to use a sum of money to redeem the domestic slaves who were taken captive to Crimea. Jewish merchants in Poland, to maintain the relationship between the Jewish community and the royal family, also regularly redeem slaves and captives from Poland-Lithuania. The folklore of Ukraine "Kantika Night in the Countryside" also has many stories about fighting against the Tatars and rescuing the Tatar and captured Cossacks. But overall, the number of lost population is far greater than the number of returnees. Until the 20th century, the Ukrainian region still circulated about TartarThe rumors of the Tatar invasion:
The river is burning and the Tatars are chasing prisoners.
The farm was destroyed and the wealth was scattered, and the old woman died tragically.
These lost white slave populations have been The Crimeans called it "the harvest of the steppe people" and referred to it as "platinum." In Constantinople in the 17th century, slaves accounted for 20% of the city’s total population. The proportion was so high that it belonged to all parts of the worldrare.
Each has its own advantagesWhereabouts
Although today’s people regard slaves as ill-fated victims, there are different ways toHuman influences also have their own merits.
For those European prisoners of war plundered by pirates, they are often detained in prisons, construction sites and paddle boats in North Africa . The famous Spanish writer Cervantes was captured on his way home from the battlefield of Lepanto, and his fate changed. The commander of the Knights Hospitaller La Vallet, who commanded the defense of Malta, was also captured by Turgut, Governor of Algiers of the Ottoman Empire, and worked as a rowing slave for a year. In retaliation, some Beys or Pashas in the Ossan Empire became captives of the Knights and were punished as rowing slaves. From then on, I needed to endure the foul-smelling environment and live a miserable life of enduring hunger.
But for the poor Eastern European serfs, being sold to Constantinople was also an eye-opening glory. Except for serfs, Domestic servants, may also become soldiers of the Guards. Even if they become the sex slaves and eunuchs of the nobles, they have the potential to become prosperous. Therefore, in Soccassia and other places in the Caucasus, the lullaby even sings like this: Marry a sultan as a wife, there are countless diamonds, and the beautiful life is endless.
At that time, the way out for the white slaves of the Caucasus was mainly to become the "plough and sickle" of the Ottomans. They need to cultivate land for landowners in Anatolia, Greece, and Cyprus. Only an elder with a skill can be a craftsman or painter in the city. In addition, male slaves with beautiful faces would be sent to aristocratic homes or harems to become domestic servants or prostitutes. After losing the election several times, the poor man can only report on the paddling boat.
The way to upgrade the Guards
Another important way out for Christian white slaves is to become a member of the Ottoman Guards. It may even be promotedThe opportunity to become the top nobleman under Sudan. The Ottoman court also needed to constantly replenish the source of the guards, and therefore introduced a very institutionalized "blood tax" policy.
Replenishment members are mainly collected by military officers with conscription orders, with the cooperation of local Christian priests. These Christian children from the northern coast of the Black Sea, Greece, Cyprus and the Balkans will wear conical hats and red clothes, and they will bring their own clothing and food from their native families. Then a group of 100-200 people came to the gate of Constantinople. In addition to a strong body, a ruddy complexion, and coordination of limbs, the bonus indicator is a scar on the body. Because scars are one of the signs that men are aggressive.
After passing the physical examination, registration, and circumcision, careful identification will officially start.According to Turkish physiognomy, astrology, and field observations, members to be enlisted will be distinguished. Those with mediocre qualifications were assigned to the Anatolian region to engage in farming with ordinary Turkish families. These families are responsible for educating their children about Islamic secular and religious education and strengthening their bodies through labor. Through the assimilation policy, let them learn Turkish, basic military skills and religion, and prepare for formal military training. Beginners are subject to strict military discipline. At the end of the training, participate in the grand graduation parade held by the Guards. The head of the regiment will give each of them a felt hat and certificate of the guards.
The better boys are sent to the homes of famous Turkish families for cultivation. According to the process, they first learn the teachings of Islam and Turkish, Persian, and Arabic. Then learn all kinds of general knowledge,Then teach students in accordance with their aptitude. Study subjects include religion, management or art of war. As potential managers, they must also master literature, riding, javelin, shooting and weightlifting. In order to concentrate on training, everyone is prohibited from contacting the outside world. After several rounds of selection, the best people will go to work in the Sudanese treasury or imperial kitchen. The rest will serve as officers of the Kapikulu forces, or administrators of the Empire.
Because blood tax is mainly levied on Christians, many other faith groups are very distressed. Poverty families of ordinary Turks, Persians and Jews send their children to the Caucasus mountains or Christian churches for baptism. In this way, a seemingly Christian identity can be obtained and then mixed into the Guards through the process.
In general, most of the fighters from Christian white slaves mainly becameWell-paid soldiers and officers. Very few people can rise to the top of the empire and become a Pasha at the level of prime minister or local governor. In the eyes of early Western observers, these people are well-trained, disciplined, and uniform. But by the 18th and 19th centuries, it was regarded as bohemian, full of swear words, and disgusting behavior.
Canary in the cage
The way out for female white slaves Mainly places such as harems and brothels. Many sultans prefer Sokasia and Ukrainian prisoners from the Caucasus, allowing some people to complete the stratification in an instant. The most legendary figures in this group are Sulaiman's favorite Ji and Xu Leim from Lviv. Her Turkish name means "happy".
Many white slave women will also be given Turkish names such as rose, hyacinth, and narcissus by eunuchs, instead of their real names. After entering the palace,There is a short-term surge in position. But after all, it's just a canary in a cage.
According to the bloody inheritance system of the early Ottoman Empire, if the prince fails to seize power, then his family and supporters have a high probability of being purged by the new sultan. Other princes and concubines of the former sultan were also strangled to death with bowstrings or handkerchiefs by the guards. This unification continued until after 1648, before it basically disappeared, and was replaced by the life-long imprisonment of the prince and concubine. Due to long-term isolation, these people and their children are weak. In the late empire, tuberculosis broke out periodically in the court. The heirs, the female family members and even the Sudan himself often have tuberculosis symptoms.
At the same time, as the Russian Empire conquered the northern shore of the Black Sea and the mountains of the Caucasus, the white slave tradeIt finally faded. As the world’s largest importer of slaves, Osman has not only fallen behind in technological development, but has also been drawn from the bottom in terms of maintaining the daily production model.
For a country that relies on slaves to maintain combat effectiveness, it’s lucky to have a prosperous age for hundreds of years .But since their society is accustomed to domesticating warriors into slaves, they are bound to be defeated thousands of miles in front of rivals rich in warriors.