1. Discovery of the Katyn tragedy
On April 13, 1943, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union In order to build the infrastructure that was destroyed in the war, Nazi Germany forced some prisoners of war and migrant workers to cut trees in the Katyn Forest in Smolensk, Russia. When the laborers were digging the road for transporting timber, they inadvertently dug up a large number of dead soldiers in military uniforms. It was confirmed that these people were Polish soldiers and were shot and killed at close range from the back of the head. With the continuous advancement of excavation work, more and more bodies were discovered. In the end, Germany claimed that several mass graves had been found in the Katyn Forest. All Polish soldiers were buried inside, and pointed out that the killers were Soviets.
The Soviet Union immediately denied it, believing that it was a “dirty conjecture, shameless fabrication” by the Germans, and claimed that these people were killed by the Germans, and that the Germans were maliciously framing the Soviet Union.
In the following decades, the Germans have been carrying this scapegoat. Although they tried to clean up their grievances, they suffered from no direct evidence. The "Katyn tragedy" It became a confusing and unpredictable case.
In the following decades, the Soviet Union and Poland had been arguing about the "Katyn" incident; until April 13, 1990, when the Polish president was When Jaruzelski visited the Soviet Union, Su officially admitted that he was fully responsible for the "Katyn" incident, calling it "one of the serious crimes of Stalinism."
2. The souls of the Katyn tragedy
1939 In August, the Soviet Union and Germany signed the "German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty." A week later, Germany aggressively invaded Poland and launched the Second World War. Half a month later, German troops arrived in Warsaw, and the Polish government was forced to move to Lublin.
At this time, the Soviet Union launched an offensive against Poland on the grounds of "protecting the people of West Ukraine and West Belarus" and occupied about 200,000 square kilometers of territory east of the Polish Curzon Line. Captured 250,000 Polish soldiers. At this point, Poland fell, and Germany and the Soviet Union took the opportunity to carve up Polish territory.
Subsequently, the Soviets identified these Polish prisoners one by one, released all ordinary soldiers, and released 20,000 officers, professors, teachers, and doctors. Elite prisoners of war, including architects and architects, were secretly detained.
Relevant parties in the Soviet Union believe that the best way is to physically eliminate them. On March 5, 1940, Beria, the Soviet NKVD (Minister of the Interior), carried out a special task against more than 20,000 prisoners of war and prisoners, mainly Polish officers.A report on the execution was submitted to Stalin and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China for approval, and it was approved immediately.
In early April 1940, the execution of Polish prisoners of war officially began. Hundreds of captured Polish officers were taken in cars from the three prison camps mentioned above and transported secretly to the Katyn Forest where they were executed. The executioners stood behind the Polish prisoners of war and shot their pistols in the back of their heads. After the burial, Soviet personnel spread a thick layer of soil on it. Soon, the second batch of prisoners of war was transported to the place and treated in the same way. Until mid-May of that year, the Soviet side executed a total of 4421 Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn Forest. They were buried in 8 large pits, covered with pine trees and Baiye trees. In addition to the Katyn Forest, the Soviets also shot 3,820 people in the Starobelsk POW camp, and shot 6,311 people in the Ostashkov concentration camp, West Ukraine and West Belarus.Other Russian prisoner-of-war camps and prisons shot 7,305 people. Together with the 4421 people executed in the Katyn Forest, a total of 21,857 people, including about 15,000 captured Polish officers and soldiers.
3 , Katyn tragedy "The disappearing future of Poland"
In Katyn tragedyAmong the more than 20,000 prisoners of war slaughtered in the case were not only ordinary soldiers, but also elites from various fields in Poland. They were considered the hope of rebuilding Poland in the future. According to later statistics, the people who were slaughtered in Katyn included one admiral, two generals, 24 colonels, 79 lieutenants colonels, 258 majors, 654 army captains, 17 navy captains, 3,420 Non-commissioned officers, 7 chaplains, 3 landlords, 1 prince, 43 officials, 85 soldiers, and 131 refugees. In addition, the victims also included 20 university professors (including mathematician Stefan Katzmalz), 300 doctors, hundreds of lawyers, engineers, teachers, more than 100 writers and journalists, and 200 pilots. In total, half of Polish officials were executed by the Ministry of the Interior. During the massacre, a total of 14 Polish generals were killed. The "Katyn tragedy" has become an eternal pain in the hearts of Poles.