The huge Forbidden City can no longer hold the melancholy of Emperor Guangxu.
The performance of the Qing army in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 made him heartbroken. He has never suffered such a setback since he became the throne! The disastrous mess has not yet been cleaned up, and he is still anxious about the intervention of Russia, Germany, and France.
The house leak happened to rain overnight. At this time, an emergency memorial from Fujian was delivered to the Imperial Front: A religious case occurred in Gutian County. 11 foreign missionaries and their families were killed and 5 injured.
This incident is tantamount to a bullet directed at Emperor Guangxu's heart. He knew the lethality of the lesson plan very well.
The "Xilin Religious Case" was one of the fuses of the Second Opium War; the "Tianjin Religious Case" triggered the gathering of foreign warships in the Bohai Sea. After two famous officials, Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang, they avoided war; "Chongqing The "teaching case" and the "Youyang teaching case" caused nearly 1,000 casualties to the local people. Britain, France, and the United States took the opportunity to extortion...
We can suppose that Emperor Guangxu must be sitting depressed on the dragon chair, beating the local officials for negligence and perfunctory behavior.
How did it end?
1. Early morning tragedy
China, Britain, and the United States have preserved many archival materials of the "Gutian Teaching Plan", especially the University of Brest, UK The website has published a set of related old photos, and we can restore the overview of the case with the help of text and images.
On the evening of July 30, 1895 (June 10, the 21st year of Guangxu), the Gutian Kunshan updo was brightly lit and the voice was full of people. 200 members of Zhaijiao gathered here to discuss the upcoming Action started.
They set off in the dark, some with red flags in their hands, some with knives, and some walking with their bare hands. The destination of this mighty team is where foreign missionaries on Mount Hua live. A bungalow.
There are 17 British and American missionaries and their families living in the bungalow (there are also many Chinese teachers and servants) who are unaware of the dangers they will encounter .
At around 6:30 in the morning on August 1, the group came near the Huashan House. However, half of the people had dispersed along the way. As Huang Nen’s brother blew the bamboo tube, Lin Yuji fired the trumpet, and the sudden harsh sound cut through the tranquility of the morning.
More than 20 people rushed to the bungalows menacingly, more than 20 people were receiving the stolen goods, more than 10 people supporting the momentum, and the rest hid in the bamboo forest without daring to show up.
For a time, the sounds of killing, crying, and smashing in the bungalow were intertwined, and soon the fire started again... Brother Huang Nen and a group of people came and went, passing the looted property .
More than half an hour later, another trumpet sounded, and the group disappeared like ghosts.
The bungalows are still burning, but there is no voice.
As a result, 11 people including Shi Xunbo were killed (all British), and 5 people including Carrington were injured (4 British and 1 American). Among the dead and injured, Shi Xunbo was excluded. Except for adult men, everyone else is women and children.
Second, the darkest moment
What was the scene in the bungalow at the time of the incident? Let’s hear what the parties said.
In the early morning of August 1, Shi Xunbo’s 11-year-old daughter Jiaxi Lingshi was lying in the yard picking flowers. Suddenly a group of men rushed with knives and spears. Enter. She didn’t know her well, so she closed the door and hid.
The woman who escaped by chanceThe boy told the "Zi Lin Xi Bao": "It didn't take long before they broke the door and came in. When they arrived in the bedroom, they pulled off their pajamas, opened the drawer, took the things they loved, broke the window lattices and other things, and hacked the rice with a knife and stick. Le Dulle. Later, when they went out, one of them saw me under the bed and shone my head with a wooden stick. It was very painful. We saw two men in Tobshaw Bay suffered severe stab wounds on their faces and were held by bandits and walked back and forth. When we asked him, if the answer was too late, we would pierce him with a spear. We heard the gangster asking for his money, and he replied that all the money had been taken."
The British female missionary Carrington just now I heard a noise in the courtyard when I got up and freshened up. Before she knew what was going on, all escape routes were blocked.
Carrington's ring and silver coins were robbed. "When someone grabbed my collar and pierced my throat with a knife, they met with each other. With a soft heart, she let go." She was injured in many places, fortunately, she got her life back..
The British and American investigation report described this scene: "Lin Xiangxing ran into Sister Bao (British female missionary Bao elite) head-on, and she just came out of the house trying to figure out what was going on. Lin Xiangxing clung to her determination to kill her, yelled, and stabbed her with the three-toothed fork in her hand. She grasped this weapon relentlessly-with some bruises under her ears-and avoided the sprint, but because of The squeezing happened and fell to the ground. The villain didn’t let her go and hit her with a three-toothed wooden handle."
When life was hanging by a thread, the Chinese servants of Bao Shigu and Chinese The teacher's wife showed up in time and saved her.
It can be seen that these people are both making money and killing.
The murderer Liu Jiusu confessed: “Those who entered the bungalow first destroyed the self-ringing bells and other objects in the hall, and the young one walked into the house and saw two foreigners on the bed, not knowing whether they were male or female. Four swords, no death. When I walked out and met Ye Dili, he piled up chairs and tables with him, poured foreign oil on them and set them on fire. He went to the next bungalow and poured oil on the wastebasket and set it on fire. "
The murderer Chen Fanzi confessed: "Xiao Xiao and Brother Huang Nen walked into the room and saw Priest Shi at the bed. Brother Huang Nen stabbed him with a knife and was caught by Priest Shi. Xiao He stabbed the history priest's belly with a knife. This forest refugeeHe also stepped forward to hurt the history priest's belly and fell to death. The young one went to another room and saw a foreign girl about twenty years old, so he jabbed him on the back three times. Xie Kaitai also slashed his waist and fell to the ground. "
The murderer Lin Xian confessed: "The young man walked to the mountain and saw four foreign girls surrounded by more than a dozen people. Several unknown people hacked and prodded each other with knives and guns. Poke the foreign girl's neck with a knife from the side. "
After the teaching staff dispersed, there was a moment of silence on the scene, and then there was a commotion. The British and American investigation said: "After the murderer left, the villagers quickly moved away what they could take and refused. Helped to carry the injured to the home, and refused to give any care. On September 26, when the committee came to survey these ruins, even a tiny piece of metal could not be found, and all were stolen by the villagers. "
The morning that was supposed to be lazy and clean as usual has becomeIn the darkest moments of Uncle Shi and others, they didn't understand why to death.
3. Why is this?
What kind of organization is Zhaijiao? Why do they "happiness and enmity" in Huashan House?
Zhaijiao, also known as "caihui", was founded in Gutian by Liu Xiangxing, a native of Jiangxi, who joined the association as "caihui". Most of its members are the poor at the bottom. These people worship Putuo Buddha, eat vegetarian chanting, quit tobacco and opium.
Under Liu Xiangxing's instigation, Zhaijiao developed rapidly, gathering thousands of congregations. They not only teach people to quit smoking and ask for safety, they have more demands.
First, they formed a party and went wild. Liu Xiangxing confessed: "When someone is bullied or has no money to use, he invites people to retaliate and blackmail. People with small villages and small surnames are afraid of the crowds in the Caihui, and they dare not sue." It can be seen that Zhaijiao has become the common people. harm.
Secondly, they have the ambition to confront the government. In March 1895, the Zhai cultists gathered near the county seat, claiming that they planned to attack the city and kill the magistrate and the gentry. The magistrate Wang Yuyang immediately closed the gates and added a retaining wall to prepare for the challenge. Later, under the mediation of a military attaché of the Qing army, Liu Xiangxing and others entered the city to negotiate with Wang Yuyang, and Zhaijiao gave up the siege plan.
Thirdly, they are in conflict with Western missionaries and people. Liu Xiangxing said: “Only the religious people rely on foreign priests to help him back, and they are often ridiculed by the religious people, saying that he is the big Jesus, and the Putuo Buddha is small in the small church. He has always been grudges." Another leader of Zhaijiao, Zheng Jiujiu (Zheng) Huai) also made a similar statement.
Zhaijiao is a restless existence in Gutian, which makes the government a headache.
On April 1, 1895, Shi Xunbo wrote to the governor of Fujian and Zhejiang Tan Zhonglin, asking him to send an army, "Because the Zhai Hui is not so much for missionaries as it is for the Chinese government. Threat."
This move of Uncle Shi Xun was a detective for the Zhaihui. Soon, soldiers arrived in Gutian. Liu Xiangxing believes that Shi Xunbo intends to use the power of the government to attack Zhaijiao.
In June, there was news that the new magistrate Wang Rulin asked to send troops. Zhaijiao concluded that it was the missionaries who provided the resources needed to deploy troops.gold.
In early July, Liu Xiangxing and Zheng Jiujiu had a business plan, "In order to vent their anger and revenge, a small intent was to destroy the historical priest's family, burn his bungalows, and use the looted loot as food and grass."
They just did what they said, and they immediately gathered people to Kunshan to make knives and banners. Just as he was gaining momentum, the third leader, Zhang Tao, opposed this action. Zhang Tao said:
"Liu Yong (Liu Xiangxing) Zheng Jiujiu and the young man told him that he wanted to destroy the historian family... The young man must first grab the wealthy households in the county, and Liu Yong, Zheng Jiujiu, and the Qing seven people. No, the next day I saw this Zheng Jiujiu writing a note and posting it, asking Caiyou to bring his own food, knives and guns. The younger ones can't do big things because of this situation, so they just pretend to go back."
Zhang Tao wants to do "big things" The idea of entering the county to grab wealthy households obviously didn't get much support, and everyone finally united under the banner of Liu Xiangxing.
There are three reasons: the county seat is a city,On alert, the strength of Zhaijiao is insufficient; the hatred between Zhaijiao and the missionaries such as Shi Xunbo is getting deeper and deeper.
So, Liu Xiangxing and Zheng Jiujiu set off on the night of the black and windy night!
Someone got the plan to attack the house in advance., And reported to Shi Xunbo, but he was a step slower.
Four. Negotiate properly
After the Zhaijiao group carried out an indiscriminate killing in the bungalows, they returned to Kunshan. The leader Zheng Jiujiu said: "After hearing that the soldiers went to the county to take care of it, the young colleagues Liu Yong burned the flags, discarded all the knives and weapons, and fled each other..."
On the day of the incident, the Gutian government immediately Send troops to capture the murderer and report the news level by level. On the third day, Emperor Guangxu received a report and was greatly horrified. He decreed: "The circumstances of this case are serious. The general and others (Fuzhou General Qingyu, Governor Bian Baoquan) should send troops to the murderer. Strict handling and punishment. The rest of the church residences, as well as the local camps and county officials, are properly protected, and there is no need for renewal."
This short decree contains Two meanings: First, just discuss the matter and investigate the case immediately; Second, by analogy, protect foreign missionaries everywhere.
Almost at the same time that Emperor Guangxu received a report, the British and American ministers in China also received news of the "Gutian Religious Case".
The governments and public opinion of the two countries have reacted strongly, and the Qing court must severely punish the criminals and replace local officials. On the other hand, they separately transferred warships to the Minjiang River in Fuzhou, threatening to "put China under the gun." A war seems to be coming.
In order to avoid the escalation of the incident, the Qing Dynasty’s handling was proactive-that is to say, it basically acted in accordance with the requirements of the United Kingdom and the United States.
First, the dereliction of duty Wang Rulin, the prefect of Gutian, and Tang Youde, the deputy general, were dismissed, and the prefect of Fuzhou, Qin Bingzhi, and Taoist Xu Xingyi were sent to investigate; second, the murderers involved in the case were searched and nearly 100 people including Liu Xiangxing and Zheng Jiujiu were arrested; again, on August 13, After the establishment of an investigative committee composed of consuls, military officers, and missionaries from the United Kingdom and the United States, they were allowed to participate in the caseTrial of the case.
The Qing dynasty couldn't wait to settle this matter, so as not to grow out of knots. Emperor Guangxu made several orders and asked Bian Baoquan to "instruct Xu Xingyi to negotiate with the consul and close the case quickly."
Xu Xingyi bluntly said to the U.S. Consul in Fuzhou, He Gesen: "Tell me how many heads I need, and how many heads I can call immediately, as long as this case can be finally concluded."p>
The British consul Moonsley wrote in a report: “Since the massacre, the Governor’s actions have been strong and efficient. of. "U.S. military officer Newell said: "The speed of the Chinese arrests in the first place is commendable. "
During the trial of the case, British and American personnel were domineering and intervened in the trial. There were only a hundred people in Huashan, and thirty or forty people in and outside the bungalows. However, the British and American authorities issued private documents based on the coercion of the religious. There were more than 200 people on the list of the Zhai church, forcing Qin Bingzhi and Xu Xingyi to arrest them. Then they added the list many times.
For this kind of unreasonable request, Qin Bingzhi said that the innocent cannot be imprisoned and it is impossible to follow suit. The British and American personnel refused to sign the case file and refused to attend the trial, which interrupted the trial for a while.
As a last resort, the Qing had to give in.There were more than three hundred and dozens of people. In the end, the consul arrested more than three hundred people, and more than 700 people were arrested."
After a long trial and bargaining, 92 people were found guilty. Various penalties were imposed: 26 death sentences, 17 death sentences, 5 permanent imprisonment, 27 10 years imprisonment, 5 5 years imprisonment, 5 bouldering piers for 3 years, 5 bouldering piers for 6 months, and 2 Fetters for two months.
After the culprit was punished, the United States believed that the case could be closed due to minor damage, and the injured female missionary was awarded 1,880 Mexican silver dollars.
It wasn’t until June 13, 1896 that British Minister Donald wrote a note to the Premier’s Office of the Qing Dynasty: “The Minister of Foreign Affairs is hereby calling for the church’s refusal to accept compensation. Please note that the minister of the noble king will check the photos, and the case can be concluded."
The British side did not ask for compensation. At this point, Emperor Guangxu's heart that had been suspended for nearly a year finally calmed down.
After the "Gutian Religious Case" occurred, there is one detail worth noting, whether it is a document from the Qing government or an investigation report from Britain and the United States , And the murderer’s confession did not mention the Chinese who were killed in the bungalow.
Jashi, an 11-year-old girl who escaped from injuryIn an interview, Ling Shide said: "From the window lattice, I saw the gangster beating a Chinese girl outside. There were four girls. One of the girls had been killed on the ground. It was really ugly."
What are the specific casualties of Chinese girls? Are they servants in the bungalows? Which gangster attacked them? Did their family members file a complaint and get compensation? No records have been found in existing official documents.
In this tragedy that shocked China and foreign countries, foreign people and officials in China naturally only cared about the life and death of Bo Shi and others, while Emperor Guangxu and Fujian local officials also focused on meeting British and American requirements as soon as possible. As for the few Chinese girls, what matters? Can they influence the overall situation of Sino-foreign relations? Can they influence whose black hat?
They are like humble little ants, alive and dead, no one cares about them. A rational and civilized society would not be so!
Reference materials: "Records of the Qing Dynasty·Records of the Guangxu Dynasty", edited by Lu Shiqiang, "Educational Case Files·Fifth Series (4)", edited by Chen Zenghui, "Educational Cases of the End of the Qing Dynasty·Volume 5", Liu Guoping "Research on the Gutian Teaching Cases in 1895"