In the previous column, we mentioned the well-deserved "Four Great Inventions of China". Among them, the one that has earned the most foreign exchange for China’s exports in history is—— Porcelain, even in English, China, porcelain is a "word": China. In the former concept of foreigners, "Porcelain=China".
But nowadays the top porcelain brands are almost all European, such as the British Wedge Wood, Herron, Hungarian, Meissen, Germany, etc., while Chinese porcelain that once swept the world has disappeared from the mainstream market, and can only accidentally "fly into the homes of ordinary people", and no longer have the aristocracy of the past. Let’s start with the Europeans’ “fascination” with porcelain.
For Greater China, which has been manufacturing and using porcelain for thousands of years, it’s already in the palm of your hand. The daily utensils here are, but for Europeans who have used pottery and iron bowls for thousands of years, these things have never been seen before, and they are too rare. They immediately became Chinese porcelain Fandi.
At that time, just come When you ship Chinese porcelain, you can immediately understand what is meant by "the empty alley for thousands of people". Even the defective products used to increase the weight of the ship can attract wild grabs. As for the fine products-reservations are not necessarily available. And the price of porcelain is almost the seller’s final say."White Gold" is not called for nothing. Generally, only the lord level can have good Chinese porcelain.
For Europeans, porcelain is almost a status symbol. It is absolutely precious and precious. For example, there is a local tyrant in Prussia. Your own porcelain will be broken, so you can put it in the safe directly inlaid with silver. Whoever marries with porcelain is definitely a fighter among local tyrants.
in addition to using In addition to the quality of porcelain for dinner, the ignorant and superstitious Europeans also gave porcelain a supernatural special meaning, which instantly shined. For example, the Spanish believed that porcelain could awaken the souls of the dead, so kings and queens were buried with porcelain. .
Among them, the biggest fan is Augustus II of the Duchy of Saxony, who used a team of 600 Saxon cavalry to exchange 151 with Persian merchants. A piece of porcelain from the "Kangxi Years of the Qing Dynasty". From then on this set of porcelain has been named "Dragon Cavalry Porcelain".
Starting from the great geographical discovery, 20 million pieces of Chinese porcelain have been directly exported to Europe. For hundreds of years, almost all ATMs in Europe have been Chinese ATMs: No If you have the money, then wholesale some porcelain to the Europeans.
Augustus II firmly believed that mastering porcelain is equivalent to mastering wealth, so he placed two alchemists under house arrest: Bertger and Zinhaus. The two really fought for each other. After tens of thousands of experiments, they really fired porcelain. This is the later Meissen porcelain. However, the two alchemists did not wait to "become famous at once." Instead, Chinghaus died young, and Bertegel received the high-level reward of "life imprisonment". After 10 years, they were in prison and Depressed and died in alcoholism. soThere is only one purpose-Confidentiality. Since then, porcelain technology is no longer a patent of the East.
Yes" "White Gold" is certainly not the only one who covets "Ao Gu II", but it is not soWhat a lucky alchemist, and Meissen porcelain is still incomparable with Chinese porcelain. In addition to gnawing technology, the European fans have used their most disdainful trick today-Send spies to steal secrets.
During the Kangxi period, Louis XIV Sent a super roomThe spy Perry Entrecole (Chinese name Yin Hongxu) came to China to commit crimes undercover, waiting for opportunities to steal technology.
Yin Hongxu appeared to be a missionary, but under the guise of a mission, he trained followers in the Jingdezhen kiln. He was undercover for 20 years and successfully stole the core secrets of porcelain. .
In 1716, Yin Hongxu’s "Collection of Chinese Letters from the Jesuits" was published in the magazine "Science", and the mysterious Chinese porcelain has since been No more mystery, the Chinese porcelain technology that has been kept secret for thousands of years has completely fallen. Although suspected of "plagiarism," the Europeans shouted: "The Chinese invented porcelain, and the Europeans invented him again."
In addition to stiff neck bracing, Europeans do A major operation on porcelain.
In the first half of the 18th century, Europeans can only be regarded as apprentices and small attendants. The slogan at that time was: Do it all. Shanzhai! At this time, the European porcelain is full of Chinese style. Take the 300-year-old Delft blue as an example. At first glance, it is simply a replica of our Yuan blue and white.
But by the second half of the 18th century, the style of Xiao Midi’s paintings changed drastically, and the "cottage style" was almost invisible, and the local European style began to become the main feature. Not only in the level of exquisiteness and beauty Started to surpass Chinese porcelain, and also began to surpass the original in terms of convenience and practicality.
For example, the following exquisite and luxurious tea set, the difference is obvious Yu Dongfang Porcelain: For processingIt is easy to make. Our Chinese teacups have almost no handles, while Europeans have added handles to make the porcelain teacups more practical-no longer afraid of hot hands.
By the time of production, the little European fanboy of the year has really achieved corner overtaking.
The main reason lies in the technology inheritance. The technology inheritance in Europe is carried on by companies and enterprises as carriers, which has the advantages of being systematic and systematic, And we can continue to make technological progress and improvement; and our technological inheritance depends on "masters"-Once the craftsmanship cannot be passed down, generations will appear. The reason why our five famous kilns disappeared, In addition to the effects of war, it is probably the result of the inheritance of the "master".
However, the Chinese porcelainSong porcelain and Yuan celadon are still the pinnacles of porcelain that cannot be surpassed. If we can use modern business philosophy and inheritance thinking, we can still look forward to the return of Chinese porcelain to the pinnacle of the world.