After Qin Shihuang became emperor, Chinese history Entering the monarchy era of more than 2,000 years, imperial power has gradually been strengthened in the state power structure.
However, the power of one person is limited.The idea of ruling the world could not be realized. Therefore, the civil official group was an important assistant and actual executor of the emperor's rule.
As the head of a hundred officials, the prime minister often has a decisive influence on the rise and fall of the country.
This article will take stock of the eight names of state-ruling parties in Chinese history.
Li Si was a native of Shangcai from Chu State at the end of the Warring States Period. Later, he went to Qi to learn from Xunzi to learn the emperor's art of Legalism.
After completing his studies, he went to Qin as an official and was appraised by the then prime minister, Lu Buwei, and was appointed For the Langguan.
OneOn the second chance, Li Si persuaded the King of Qin Yingzheng to eliminate the six kingdoms, achieve the emperor's cause, and dominate the world, so he was appointed as the long history.
Subsequently, King Qin followed Li Si's strategy and dispatched counsellors to lobby the six countries of Guandong with gold and jade, and separated the monarchs and ministers of the countries, and appointed Li Si as the guest qing.
It can be seen that Li Si played a major role in the cause of Qin’s destruction of the Six Nations.
In 237 BC, Li Si listed the "Book of Admonition to Dispel the Guest" to prevent the King of Qin from expelling the guests from the six countries, so the King of Qin promoted Li Si as a court lieutenant.
In 221 BC, after Qin unified the world, Li Si joined forces with Wang Wan and Feng Jie to negotiate the deityQin Wang Yingzheng became the emperor and established the etiquette system, and then Li Si was worshipped as the prime minister.
After Li Sibaixiang,
- It is recommended to dismantle county walls and destroy civilian weapons;
- oppose the system of enfeoffment and adhere to the system of prefectures and counties; advocate the burning of "Poems", "Books" and other doctrines in private collections, and prohibit private learning in order to strengthen ideological governance;
- Participate in the formulation of laws to unify the system of vehicle tracks, text, and weights and measures.
His political propositions implemented the legalist thought. Although the people of the six countries were placed under severe penalties, they objectively strengthened the centralization of power and contributed to the political system of a unified country.
This has had a profound impact on China and the world, and established the basic pattern of feudal autocracy in China for more than two thousand years.
After the death of Qin Shihuang, Li Si ignored the important affairs of the country in private, and colluded with Zhao Gao to forge the will, gave the dead son to help Su, and supported Hu Hai as the second emperor.
But this cannot conceal Li Si’s tremendous contribution in the process of Qin’s unification of the world and the governance of the unified country.
Xiao He was born in the late Warring States period, earlyHe served as the county official in Peixian County of the Qin Dynasty in the year and assisted Liu Bang in the peasant uprising in the late Qin Dynasty.
- After Liu Bang conquered Xianyang, he took over the laws and books collected by Prime Minister Qin and Yu Shifu, and mastered the country’s important mountains and rivers, counties and counties. , Played an important role in formulating policies and winning the Chu-Han War in the future;
- During the Chu-Han War, he stayed behind in Guanzhong, making Guanzhong a solid back for the Han army. The continuous delivery of soldiers and salaries to support operations played an important role in Liu Bang's victory over Xiang Yu and the establishment of the Han Dynasty.
Xiao He adopted the Qin Six Methods to re-enact the law and order system as the "Nine Chapters of Law."
In terms of legal thought, he advocated inaction and liked the technique of Huang Lao, which laid the foundation for the policy of rest and recuperation in the early Han Dynasty.
Liu Bang once commented on Xiao He :
"Town the country, caress the people, pays off, and pays no money. I am better than Xiao He. ”
Xiao He is good at governing the country, and laid a solid foundation for the 400-year foundation of the Han Dynasty, known as "Xiao Xiangguo" in history .
At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, in order to avoid war, Zhuge Liang followed his uncle Zhuge Xuan to Jingzhou in his early years. Live in seclusion in Longzhong.
When Liu Bei relied on Liu Biao in Jingzhou, he asked Zhuge Liang to come out of the mountain to assist him and join his grandson against Cao. In the battle of Chibi, Liu Bei defeated Cao Jun.
Then, Liu Bei took the opportunity to win Occupy Jingzhou, capture Yizhou, and then defeat Cao Jun to win Hanzhong.
So a trio of three kingdoms was formed, completing the basics of Zhuge Liang’s "Longzhong" strategy Planning.
In 221 AD, Liu Bei established the Shuhan regime in Chengdu, and Zhuge Liang was appointed prime minister to preside over the affairs of the court.
When the lord Liu Chan succeeded to the throne after Shu, Zhuge Liang was named a Marquis of Wuxiang and led Yizhou as a pastoralist.right.
Zhugeliang is diligent and cautious, and political affairs of all sizes must be handled personally, rewards and punishments are strict,
- in politics In terms of economy, implement laws to build a clean government;
- In terms of economy, implement a farming policy to encourage production;
- Diplomatically, allied with Soochow and improved relations with all ethnic groups in the southwest;
- In military terms, there were six Northern Expeditions to the Central Plains, and there was no food left. It won.
Although Zhuge Liang’s policy of the Northern Expedition is controversial, he has made significant contributions to the development and education of the people in Sichuan and Southwest China.
The "Three Kingdoms" commented on Zhuge Liang:
"It can be described as a talented person who knows and governs, and Guan (Zhong) and Xiao (He) are alike. ”
Zhuge Liang’s lifelong spirit of "work hard and die after death" is praised by posterity and is a traditional Chinese culture Representatives of the loyal ministers and wise men.
Fang Xuanling was born in a family of officials and officials. He was Fang Yan, the commander of Jingyang in the Sui DynastyThe son of Qian.
He is good at poetry and essays, has an extensive knowledge of history, and was eighteen years old. He was a senior high school scholar and was awarded the post of Yuqi Lieutenant and Xicheng County Lieutenant. After Li Yuan rose up in Jinyang, Fang Xuanling took refuge in the king of Qin Li Shimin, actively making suggestions, managing secretaries, selecting talents, and becoming one of the powerful advisers in the palace of Qin.
Later, he planned for Li Shimin to change the Xuanwu Gate, and he took the lead with Du Ruhui and other five people.
After Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty came to the throne, he worshipped Zhong Shuling (the post of prime minister) and named Xing Guogong. He was responsible for comprehensive management of the court, concurrently studying national history, and compiling the Book of Jin.
During the period in power, Fang Xuanling was good at strategy, Du RuhuiHe acted decisively, and called it "a good case for the house" and became a model of good looks.
Later, Fang Xuanling was promoted to Shangshu Zuopushe, Sikong, and Liang Guogong, who became the twenty-four hero of Lingyan Pavilion.
Tang Taizong's evaluation of Fang’s school age:
"Fan Zhongsu, a knowledgeable and clear-minded person, was called Wang Zuo, Wang is the time English."
"New Tang Shu" commented on him:
"Room Xuanling is in charge of the country, and Su Ye is diligent and strong. He does not want to lose a thing when he is exhausted."
Fang Xuanling is worthy of the name of a virtuous person, and has become the main promoter of the "rule of Zhen Guan".
Kou Zhun h1>
In 980 AD, during the Song Taizong reign, Kou Zhunzhong Jinshi, was awarded Dali's official post was later appointed as the magistrates of Badong and Cheng'an counties.
He was upright, and was gradually re-used by Song Taizong due to repeated admonitions. He was appointed Deputy Envoy of the Privy Council, and later promoted to the Minister of Political Affairs.
After Song Zhenzong ascended the throne, he served successively in the Ministry of Industry, the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, and the Ministry of War.
In 1004 AD, withThe governor Bi Shian served as the Tongping Zhangshi together (the post of prime minister).
During Kou Zhun’s administration,
- In politics, he was known for his uprightness. Dare to violate Yan Jin's remonstrance and strictly enforce the law.
- Economically, construct water conservancy projects, open canals to divert water to irrigate fertile fields, and promote economic development;
- Military diplomacy In the previous period, he strongly resisted the Liao and prompted the Liao and Song Dynasties to sign the "Chanyuan Alliance."
In the Song Renzong period, Tian Kuang commented on Kou Zhun:
"Kou Qi is in phase, and he is in the heart of the world with pure brightness."
Kou The prospective prime minister has talent and degree. It can be described as a prime minister.
In 1042 AD, the second year of Song Renzong Qingli, Wang Anshi Jinshi and the first, then He has served as a judge in Yangzhou, a magistrate in Yin County, and a judge in Shuzhou. He has notable political achievements.
In 1069, Song Renzong served as a minister of political affairs, and worshiped the minister the following year. , Served as the Ping Zhang Shi of Ren Tongzhong Shumen, presided over the reform, known in history as the "Wang Anshi Reform".
Because of opposition from the old school, Wang Anshi was in 1074.After being dismissed, Song Shenzong re-appointed him a year later, and was dismissed again soon afterwards, and Wang Anshi retired to Jiangning.
In 1086, when the conservatives gained power, all the new laws that Wang Anshi presided over were abolished. He was depressed and died of illness in Zhongshan.
After Wang Anshi's death, he was given the posthumous title "Wen" and was called "Wang Wengong".
When Wang Anshi was in power, he presided over reforms and implemented new laws from three aspects: rich country, strong soldiers, and talent selection, in an effort to change the poor and weak situation of the Song Dynasty.
After the implementation of the new law, national income hasThe fighting power has been strengthened, but the reform objectively increased the burden of the people, created the imagination of the country's prosperity and the people's poverty, and caused popular grievances. So conservatives used this as an excuse to completely abolish the new law.
Wang Anshi sees the country’s accumulated drawbacks, so he doesn’t take his own reputation as the priority, and strives to reject all opinions and carry out reforms. Although the new law has its own advantages and disadvantages, Wang Anshi is still a generation Name and phase.
Yelü Chucai is a descendant of the Liao Dynasty imperial family, Yelvbei, the Dongdan king of the Liao Dynasty The eighth generation grandson, the son of Youcheng Yelulu, Shangshu of the Jin Dynasty, was an official to the left and right staff members and Wailang during the Jin Dynasty.
Yelüchucai was loyal to the Mongolian regime and successively assisted Genghis Khan. Father and son have been in the middle school for more than 30 years, and have served as the book order for 14 years.
During his administration, he proposed to govern the country with Confucianism and formulated various administrative strategies,
- for the development of the Mongol Empire and the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty Laid the foundation;
- also made important contributions to the preservation of Chinese culture.
After the death of Yelü Chucai, he was awarded the title of "Wenzheng" with the posthumous title "Wenzheng" after the title of the King of Guangning, and was awarded the title of "Ql-align". justify">Guoxue master Wang Guowei commented on Yelv Chucai:
"Mongolia entered the Central Summer, a warriorIt is arrogant, and its monarchs and ministers never know how to govern the people. If there are no Wenzheng (Yelüchucai) people at this time, there are those who do not know how. ”
Yelü Chucai used the people of Khitan to protect the civilization of China, and he deserves the name of a generation.
Zhang Juzheng was born in Jingzhouwei, Huguang (Jingzhou City, Hubei Province), Ming Dynasty Jinshi in the Jiajing period.
In 1567 AD (the first year of Longqing), he served as the Assistant Secretary of the Ministry of Civil Affairs and a Bachelor of Dongge University. Soon after, he was promoted to the second assistant of the cabinet. , He was a scholar of the official department and Jianji Temple.
In 1572, Zhang Juzheng replaced Gao GongHe is the chief assistant of the cabinet (the head of the hundred officials), presides over all major military and political matters, and has a ten-year term spanning the Longqing and Wanli dynasties.
Zhang Juzheng implemented a series of reform measures during his administration.
- In the management of officials, comprehensive verification of names and facts is implemented, and officials at all levels are assessed by the "examination method", so that the imperial order is carried out at night and the government is solemn ;
- Financially, clearing the fields and implementing the "one-lash method", tax and corvee were paid in two generations of silver, which increased national income and formed the "Taicang Suke After ten years, Zhou Temple’s accumulation of funds reached more than 4 million" phenomenon;
- Military, appointed famous generals such as Qi Jiguang and Li Chengliang to the north of the town, and used Ling Yunyi and Yin Zhengmao to quell the southwestern rebellion.
Liang Qichao commented on Zhang Juzheng as "the only Ming Dynasty Great politician".
In spite of his personal fame, Zhang Juzheng "has done his best for the country, and died after death", as "Wanli ZTE has laid a good foundation.