Weihai in 1888. The battle flag is hunting and the flute resounds. Accompanied by Ding Ruchang, Li Hongzhang stood on the bridge of the flagship Dingyuan of the Beiyang Fleet and watched for a long time the fleet that he had worked so hard to manage for more than ten years. Thousands of sails competed, and hundreds of horses competed, Li Hongzhang was full of ambition. At that time, the Beiyang Fleet stood out in Asia, and China finally had a modern navy that could rival the great powers.
1. One hundred years of Dadonggou
Four years later, on September 17, 1894, Dadonggou at the mouth of the Yalu River. After the Beiyang Fleet escorted the army to land, it met with the Japanese joint fleet. The battle of Dadonggou began.
The battle lasted until 3:10 in the afternoon.The flagship of the Ocean Fleet "Dingyuan" was hit on the bow by the Japanese fleet, and the smoke was everywhere, blocking the sight of the shooting, and instantly became a floating target. At this critical moment, Zhiyuan Ship Management led Deng Shichang to raise the flagship flag to take over the command. In an instant, Japanese artillery fired on Zhiyuan, and Zhiyuan quickly sank. At 3:30 in the afternoon, the boiler compartment of the Zhiyuan ship was smashed and sank immediately. Deng Shichang and more than a hundred officers and soldiers on the ship died heroically.
The Jingyuan ship, as the wing ship of Zhiyuan, accompanied the Zhiyuan ship to speed up towards the Japanese ship, but was also hit by a concentrated fire, and the entire ship ignited a raging fire. After the Zhiyuan ship sank, the Jiyuan ship's management led Fang Boqian to escape, and the Jingyuan ship instantly lost cover. The four ships, including the Japanese ship Yoshino, forced the warships out of the battle sequence by virtue of their superior firepower. In order to prevent the ship from sinking, Lin Yongsheng commanded the ship to run aground to the coastal area. Following each other day by day, the command module of the long-distance ship was directly hit by a shell. The flying shrapnel cut open Lin Yongsheng's head on the spot, "striked by the bullet" and died heroically.
At 5:30 in the afternoon, an artillery shell of Yoshino directly hit the ship’s ammunition depot. The ship’s port side armor belt was exploded and opened immediately. The ship capsized and sank. More than two hundred officers and soldiers, Lin Yongsheng, first officer Chen Ce, and others were all martyred.
In 2014, an underwater archaeological team based on data clues and magnetometer data in Dalian, Liaoning An iron shipwreck was found in the waters south of the old man’s stone on Heidao Island in Shizhuang River, and it was presumed to be a long-distance ship, but there is no decisive evidence.
In 2018, the National Cultural Heritage Administration Underwater Cultural Heritage Protection Center, Association of Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Dalian Institute of Cultural Relics and ArchaeologyThe joint team conducted an archaeological investigation on the wreckage of an iron shipwreck in the Dalian waters, and confirmed that the ship was the shipwreck of the Beiyang Navy’s Jiawu naval battle. This is another major achievement of China’s underwater archaeological work after the Zhiyuan ship. . After 124 years of heroic warfare, the warship finally saw the light of day again.
The water extracted from this investigation includes Mauser rifle bullets, pistol bullets, 37A large number of relics, including weapons and ammunition such as millimeter and 47 millimeter Haqi Kaisi rapid-fire shells, files, wrenches, punches and other maintenance tools. At the same time, the traces of flame burning on the remains of the Jingyuan ship also confirmed the fierce battle at Dadonggou and the serious damage to the Jingyuan ship.
In January 1887, the Jingyuan ship was launched at the Vulkeng Shipyard in Steding am Oder, Germany. Before this, the three giant ships of Beiyang Navy: Dingyuan, Zhenyuan, and Zhiyuan were also born here. In December 1881, the Dingyuan ship was launched here and arrived at Dagukou in 1885 to join the Beiyang Navy. Li Hongzhang was very satisfied with the performance of these three ships. As the Fujian Navy was hit by the French Far East Fleet in the Mawei naval battle in 1885, the entire army was annihilated. The Qing government deeply felt the need for a great coastal defense, and a new wave of shipbuilding by the Beiyang Navy began again. .
After many weighings, Li Hongzhang finally Ordered two dome-clad cruisers from the United Kingdom for Zhiyuan and Jingyuan; and two armored cruisers for Jingyuan and Laiyuan. In comparison, the German Jingyuan-class plan is an armored cruiser with slightly better protection and speed. Slightly slower, more survivable; the British Zhiyuan class plan is a dome cruiser, with sufficient firepower and relatively fast speed. It is worth mentioning that the Jingyuan class is the originator of the armored cruiser of the pre-fearless era, but Beiyang The navy also acted as a guinea pig. In the actual battle of the Jiawu naval battle, it was proved that the design of the Jingyuan ship did have certain drawbacks. However, due to the financial situation of the Qing court at that time, the Jingyuan ship was not a wise one. Choose.
In August 1887, after a trial voyage in the Baltic Sea, the two ships went to Newcastle, England, and The two Zhiyuan-class cruisers that were completed there merged. The Chinese in Britain were so excited that they went to Newcastle to see the grand occasion. On August 25, the four ships set off from Newcastle and returned to China. The torpedo boat No. 1". It was built on a British Royal Navy ship stationed in Newcastle.The ships of the Beiyang Navy also fired salutes to send off.
On November 11, the fleet reached Hong Kong. On December 10th, arrived in Xiamen. At that time, Dagukou was frozen, and Li Hongzhang ordered it to drill for the winter in Haikou, Xiamen, and sent Ding Ruchang to lead 8 ships including Dingyuan, Zhenyuan, Jiyuan, and Weiyuan to wait for acceptance here. In the spring of 1888, the main force of the Beiyang Navy went north to Dagukou and finally joined the battle sequence. This also marked the end of the Qing Dynasty shipbuilding boom that lasted for nearly a decade. In the following years, the Beiyang Navy did not fill one ship and one artillery. As the world's naval technology developed with each passing day, it gradually drifted away from the advanced trend. .
Three, have public feet and strengthen the navy
While making significant progress through the archaeological discovery of distant ships, two family letters that have been sealed in dust for a hundred years Also attracted people's attention. This was on the eve of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.Two letters from the driver's second officer Chen Jingying to his father far away from home.
The first letter was written before the Jiawu War broke out, and the war was on the verge of breaking out. Chen Jingying first expressed her concern about the Japanese army's pressing on and the Qing army's protection of the ship to avoid the war, and then she said to her father with the words "Surely, you cannot escape, but you can only die". Speaking of the determination to serve the country. His heart of worrying about the country and the people, and his sentiment of serving the country are beyond words.
Another family letter was written on the day before the war. In the letter, Chen Jingying once again stated to her father This gave him his determination to be loyal to his ministers and to live toward death: "If there is something in the country, it should be loyal to him. This is the duty of a solid minister, and it is fortunate for the man to die on the battlefield. "At the same time, since ancient times, loyalty and filial piety cannot have both ends, and only a few words reveal deep guilt and worry for his father." But loyalty cannot be filial. Although loyalty uses filial piety as loyalty, the crime of unfilial piety is always Can't escape from the world! "With a few words, the feelings of the family and the country are expressed heartily, and it is tearful to read.
Chen Jingying is just a microcosm. During the Dadonggou naval battle, due to the design flaws of the long-distance ship, The armored command room where the battleship commander is located has become the most dangerous placesquare. Lin Yongsheng and the first lieutenant Chen Ce, Chen Rong, and second lieutenant Chen Jingying, who took over the command position, were killed one after another. In the end, surrounded by enemy ships, they continued to hold on until the warship sank, and never stopped counterattacking. Only 16 of the 202 people on the ship survived. Almost all officers at all levels were martyred or sank with the ship.
According to legend, when the Beiyang Navy was defeated at Dadonggou and the news of Deng Shichang’s heroic sacrifice returned to Beijing, Emperor Guangxu Suffering at the desk, he inscribed the elegiac couplet personally: Today we shed tears in the world, and the public football will strengthen the navy. Perhaps, in that era of domestic and foreign difficulties, only this kind of spirit can support the backbone of the Chinese nation.
Wen Shijun said
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China Navy. After more than a century, there were no traces of invaders on the borders of the motherland. The ships flying the flag of the People’s Navy protect the tranquility and peace of the 4 million square kilometers of maritime territory. However, the loyal soul of the blue sea will never be forgotten through the distant ship, and will be in the surging waterChina will always support the take-off of the Chinese dragon.
Note: There is still controversy in the academic circles about the number of deaths of the Beiyang Fleet in the Dadonggou naval battle. The relevant data in this article adopt the mainstream view.
1. Chen Yue: "Beiyang Navy Ship History", Shandong Pictorial Publishing House, 2009.
2. "How was the long-sleeping warship discovered for a hundred years?" ", "Zhejiang Legal System News," September 30, 2018.
3. Information about the Liaoning Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau
4. Yao Kaiyang: "The Clouds in the Sea: An Atlas of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Navy", Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Press
(author: awe-inspiring literature and history · Contributing author Guo Peng)
This article is popular science literature and history from the media awe-inspiring original works of literature and history, to prohibit the unauthorized transferLoad!
The pictures used in this article are from the Internet unless otherwise specified. If there is any infringement, please contact the author to delete it, thank you!
We will provide you with wonderful historical articles every day, and we urge readers and friends to pay attention to our account! Your likes, reposts, and comments are the best support for us!