Tibet, located in the southern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, covers an area of 1.2 million square kilometers, ranking second among Chinese provinces. Tibet is also the birthplace of the Indus River, Yarlung Zangbo River, Nu River and other major Asian rivers. Tibet has been an active area for the Qiang and Tibetans since ancient times. A powerful Tubo Kingdom (618-842) was established during the Tang Dynasty and fell into a split at the end of the Tang Dynasty. So, when was Tibet included in China's territory?
First, Tubo and the Tang Dynasty: From confrontation to peace
Tibet, is Qiang (in a broad sense) One of them. About 5000 years ago, the ancient Qiang people entered the border area of Qinghai-Tibet, and then split. The people who entered the Weihe River Valley invented planting and evolved into a farming nation, that is, the Huaxia ethnic group; those who continued to nomadize in Ganqing and Qinghai were the Qiang ethnic group; those who went deep into Tibet later evolved into the Tibetan ethnicity (the name Tibetan did not appear until the Ming and Qing Dynasties , Formerly known as Qiang or Tubo). There are many similarities between Tibetan language and Han language, and both belong to the Sino-Tibetan language family. All this shows that the Tibetans, Qiangs, and Hans are ethnic groups of the same clan.
Before the establishment of Tubo, Tibet was still In the prehistoric tribe era, the various clans were not in harmony with each other. In the 6th century, the Yalong tribe in the Shannan area of Tibet continued to grow stronger and expanded to the Lhasa River Basin. After Songtsen Gampo came to power, he successively annexed Subi, Yangtong, and Bailan. The tribes such as Dangxiang, Fuguo, Jialiangyi unified the entire Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and established a powerful Tubo dynasty.
Tubo Dynasty There was peace and war with the Tang Dynasty. Tubo was a major disaster in the western part of the Tang Dynasty. Starting from the establishment of the Tubo Dynasty in Songtsen Gampo, the four towns in the Western Regions, the Hexi Corridor, the capital Chang'an, and the Xichuan area in the Tang Dynasty were all facing serious problems all the time. Threat. Tubo cavalry can plunder in the interior of the Tang Dynasty at any time, but the Tang Dynasty army cannot enter the Qinghai-Tibet area. After the Anshi Rebellion, Tubo reached its peak, controlled the Hexi Corridor area, and surrendered Nanzhao State. In 763, The Tubo army once captured Chang'an, thanks to the Uyghur army’s support and reuse of Guo ZiYi was able to recover. In 790, Tubo occupied the entire Western Regions. According to Tibetan documents, the territory of Tubo even reached the Ganges region southward, becoming one of the most powerful countries in Asia at that time.
Tubo occupied the Western Regions It filled the vacuum period after the Tang Dynasty withdrew from the Western Regions, which prevented the Arab empire, which had been coveting the Western Regions, from entering the Western Regions, and made a certain contribution to the defense of Chinese territory. However, due to the Tubo attacking from all sides during this period, continuous wars, and ultimately severely weakened In the 9th century, Tubo was defeated in the South by Nanzhao, the East by the Tang Dynasty, and the Western Regions were attacked by the Arab Empire.Hit and began to decline. Therefore, Tubo began to change its confrontational relationship with the Tang Dynasty. In 821, the Tubo and Tang dynasties established alliances in Chang'an and Luoxe (Lhasa) successively, and established the Tang-Tibetan alliance monument in Lhasa. The alliance between Tubo and the Tang Dynasty ended the 200-year confrontation between the two countries and entered the era of peace.
After 840, the Tubo dynasty fell apart. After a period of melee, it was divided into four small kingdoms, namely the Lhasa King family, the Ali King family, the Yaze King family, and the Yalong Jua King family. Except the Yalong Jua King family located in Qinghai, the other three kings The departments are located in Tibet.
Second, the spread of Buddhism and surrender to Mongolia
The Tubo people are a nomadic people who can conquer and fight. The fighting power in the early stage is no less than that of the nomads on the Mongolian plateau. However, after the collapse of the Tubo dynasty, the Tubo nation became much gentler and more and more advocating peace. Why? The reason lies in faith.
Since the establishment of the Tubo Kingdom, Buddhism began to spread on a large scale. Under the influence of Princess Wencheng and Princess Chizun of Nepal, the Tubo royal family began to believe in Buddhism. Songtsen Gampo once sent ministers to India to study Sanskrit and Buddhist scriptures. Since then, Trisong Dezan and Trizu Dezan have supported the spread of Buddhism on a large scale, and they and Songtsan Gampo have been called the "three kings of grandparents and grandchildren".
During the decades when the Tubo Dynasty fell, Tubo's Buddhism suffered a severe blow. During the Rhondamar period (842-978), Tubo set off a large-scale extinction movement, which was called the "Dark Age". More than 100 years after Klang Dama destroyed the Buddha, Buddhism once again spread to the Tubo region from different directions, and continued to merge to form Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism). Before the Mongols entered Tibet, Tubo basically formed a political and religious system. Under the influence of Buddhism, people abandon the music and martial arts, from fierceness to gentleness, and their invincible fighting spirit is also gradually declining.
Mongolian Khanate in the 13th century The grassland has risen. In 1239, Wo Duan led the Mongolian army into the Tubo region. The divided Tubo forces collapsed and surrendered to Mongolia. In 1247, the Tubo religious leader Sakya Banzhi signed the "Sakya Banzhida to the Tibetans Book", the agreement stipulates that Tubo belongs to the Mongolian Khanate.
1271 Kublai Khan declared his succession as the emperor of China and established the Yuan Dynasty. The Tubo area was also under the jurisdiction of the Yuan Dynasty’s Xuanzhengyuan, and in Tibet, it checked the households, set up post stations, levied taxes, stationed troops, appointed officials, unified the calendar and the criminal law The Yuan Dynasty established the Wusi Zang Propaganda Department in Tibet, with 13 ten thousand households and several thousand households. These measuresShi officially marked the first time in history that Tibet was fully integrated into China's territory. However, it should be noted that the Mongols conquered Tibet politically, but they were conquered by Tibetan Buddhism in faith. Since then, most Mongolians have also converted to Tibetan Buddhism, and the relationship between Mongolia and Tibet has become closer.
Three, from nominal canonization to minister in Tibet
Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368 The Yuan Dynasty was overthrown, the Ming Dynasty was established, and most of the territory of the Yuan Dynasty was inherited. Zhu Yuanzhang also announced that he would inherit the Yuan Dynasty's sovereignty claims over Tibet. The Ming Dynasty basically inherited the establishment of the Xuanwei Division in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty, and divided the monks in Tibet on a large scale, and required Tibet to pay tribute. During the Ming Dynasty, the mainlandThe post to Tibet. However, it should be noted that the Ming Dynasty's control of Tibet was only nominal, and in fact it did not effectively control it. The Ming Dynasty did not send a soldier or officer to station in Tibet.
Whether it is Yuan Dynasty or In the Ming Dynasty, the control over TibetDivision system, which is the form of canonization. In Tibet, there are also large and small local land rights. They are nominally canonized by the central government as the prefects of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, but at the same time they are local independent small kingdoms. From the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty, there were dynasties such as Sakya, Pazhu (1208—), Rembongpa (-1565), and Zangpahan (1565—1642) in Tibet. In 1613, there was a civil strife in the Tibetan Khan Dynasty. The Karma Karma established the Karma Kingdom to rule the entire Tibet and ban the titles of Dalai and Panchen Lama. At this time, the Dalai and Panchen Lama asked the Heshuote Kingdom of Qinghai to enter Tibet. In 1642, the Heshuote Kingdom unified Qinghai-Tibet and became a larger Mongolian country.
Heshuote Kingdom is It was established by the Oirat Mongols, and thus belongs to the Qing dynasty in name (Huang Taiji conquered Monan Mongolia in 1635 and became the great sweat of Mongolia). In 1646, the Heshuote Kingdom proclaimed to the Qing emperor Shunzhi, and the Qing court granted armor Gong Shi ordered it to govern the ministries. Later, in 1652, the fifth Dalai Lama entered Beijing and accepted the canonization of Shunzhi; In 1713, Kangxi officially confirmed the name of the Panchen Lama, and in 1709, Emperor Kangxi sent temporary ministers.Heshou went to Lhasa to supervise the government affairs of the Shuot Khanate. Therefore, in name, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was already under the Qing Dynasty from a long time ago.
Early Qing Dynasty, northwestThe rise of the Dzungarian Khanate became the strong enemy of the Qing Dynasty. With the support of Russia, the Junggar Khanate continued to attack Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibet region. Guldan's ambition was to build a steppe empire across Europe and Asia. In 1717, the Junggar Khanate launched an attack on the Heshuote Khanate and destroyed the Heshuote Khanate. In 1721, Kangxi then sent a large army into the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and expelled the Junggar forces, known in history as "expelling the preservation". Then Kangxi stationed 4000 troops in Tibet (reduced to 1000 later). In 1728, the Qing Dynasty put down the Five Galonian civil strife and officially set up a minister in Tibet. The Minister in Tibet has taken over all important political powers in Tibet, including personnel, administration, finance, military, justice, and diplomacy. This signifies that Tibet has been officially included in the territory of the Qing Dynasty.