There is Quanshuiwan Village in Chengguan Town, Fangxian County, Shiyan City, Hubei Province. There is a Zhu’s building complex covering an area of more than 2,000 acres. This complex is the Zhu's ancestral hall and living buildings with a history of five hundred years. After the Qing army entered the Pass, the small court of Dingwu of Nanming established the imperial palace here from 1646 to 1663 for the residence of Emperor Zhu Benxuan. Judging from the existing ancestral halls, gardens, courtyards, and ancestral graves of the Zhu family, its architecture and remains have both the characteristics of an ancestral hall and the style of a palace. It is a unique ancient building.
One-500-year-old Zhu’s Ancestral Hall in Fangxian
The Zhu family belongs to the county in Fangxian.The source is very long. Zhu's posterity said: Its ancestor was Dan Zhu, the son of Emperor Yao. In the fifty-eight years of Emperor Yao, Hou Ji placed his son in Danshui. Later, the emperor Dan Zhu avoided the room of Shun Yu, and Shun Rang refused. Zhu Sui was sealed in the room as Yu Bin. At present, there is Yaoziya in the northeast of Fangxian and the site of Danzhu Tomb in Erlanggang in the southwest of the city.
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang led a peasant uprising and overthrew the brutal racial discrimination regime of Meng Yuan and established the Ming Dynasty. In 1412, Ming Chengzu Zhu Di built a Taoist temple in Wudang Mountain, more than a hundred miles north of Fangxian County, to worship Xuantian God. Since then, all emperors of the Ming Dynasty regarded Wudang Taoist Temple as the royal family temple, and they all regarded Xuantian God as the royal guardian god. At this time, in Quanshuiwan Village outside Fangxian City, a Zhu's ancestral hall had begun to take shape. It is recorded in the family tree of the Zhu family that when descendants were repairing the ancestral hall, they found that there wereThe forty years of Ming Jiajing (1561). Based on this calculation, the Zhu's ancestral hall in Fangxian County has a history of four to five hundred years. It is one of the oldest and best preserved ancestral halls in Hubei Province.
The fifteenth year of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty (1536) was a special year. In this year, the Jiajing emperor issued an edict, allowing the folks to "Lian Zong Li Temple." Since then, ordinary Chinese families can also build family temples and worship their ancestors in ancestral halls like emperors and nobles. Regardless of the family's wishes and financial resources, large or small ancestral halls can be built to record the glory and tradition of the family. Changed the previous hierarchical system where ordinary officials and common people were not qualified to build family temples and could only worship their ancestors outside. After the fifteenth year of Jiajing allowed non-governmental "Lianzong to build temples", the imperial court still had certain restrictions on the construction of ancestral halls. There were several officials in the family, and the ancestral halls could be built into several open houses.Several steps are allowed for the houses in the middle of the room, and there are certain requirements for how big an ancestral hall can be built by ordinary people’s families. Later, the family's ethos of building ancestral halls became stronger, and these rules of the court gradually weakened.
After the Qing Dynasty’s regime was stabilized, it adopted some gentle policies towards the Ming Dynasty’s royal survivors. For example, in the eighteenth year of Shunzhi (1661), the generals of the Feng Kingdom of the Ming Dynasty Zhu Yiying, the princes Zhu Jingfu, Zhu Zhijun, and Zhu Dingsong were awarded the "Qing Duwei" and "Yun Qiwei" respectively, and they were given salary, population and fields. Wait. In the second year of the Yongzheng period (1724), Zhu Zhilian, the descendant of the Ming dynasty king who was captured with Hong Chengchou, was named a first-class prince by the Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty. According to records, after the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Zhu Zhilian's tenth generation Sun Zhu Yuxun, still known as the first-class Yan Enhou, continued to enter and exit the wandering little court in Puyi. Qing Daoguang Ninth Year (1830), Fangxian Zhu's Ancestral Hall underwent a major construction. After the construction, the ancestral hall still retains the pattern of the imperial family temple of the Ming Dynasty and has been recognized by local officials in the Qing Dynasty. In the ninth year of Daoguang in the Qing Dynasty, the reason why the construction of the family temple style of the family temple of the Zhu family in Fangxian County was recognized is that the Qing Dynasty had a gentle policy towards the Ming Dynasty royal family.
Fangxian Zhu’s building complex covers an area of more than 2,000 acres. The main buildings include Zhu’s ancestral hall, Zhu’s garden, Zhu’s old house, and Zhu’s compound And the tomb of the first generation of ancestors, and the field of Zhu's ancestral hall. As far as Zhu’s ancestral hall is concerned, it is divided into five entrances and two courtyards. The five entrances are the archway, the gate, the yimen, the Xiangtang and the bedroom; the two courtyards are the east and the west. The first entrance archway has been destroyed, but the information shows that the archway is a three-story, four-poster, three-story building with four large characters "Hometown of Early Ming Dynasty" engraved on it. The Descendants of Zhu Family in Fangxian's Interpretation of "The Hometown of Early Ming Dynasty"Yes: In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, Fangxian had a large Zhu family living here and built an ancestral hall.
The existing gate, ritual gate, Xiangtang and dormitory of Zhu’s ancestral hall are listed by Fangxian People’s Government as a county-level key cultural relics protection unit. Provincial key cultural relics protection units are also applying. Professor Kuang Yucong, a Shiyan historian who enjoys special allowances from the State Council, Associate Professor Chen Zefan, editor of Shiyan City Chronicles, and Zhu Tianfeng, former deputy director of the Shiyan Municipal Construction Committee, among others, after a field visit, believe that the interior carvings of Fangxian Zhu’s ancestral hall are royal The style of the ancestral hall reflects the characteristics of the royal ancestral hall; the architectural style and carving technique of the Zhu's ancestral hall have the characteristics of the middle and early Ming Dynasty.
Nanming Dingwu Palace in 2 or 17 years
The year 1644 was the 17th year of Chongzhen of the Ming Dynasty. This year is also the first year of the three dynasties, namely the first year of Shunzhi of Qing Shizu, the first year of Yongchang of Dashun Dynasty (Li Zicheng), and the first year of Dashun of Daxi Dynasty (Zhang Xianzhong). This year, the elder brother of Emperor Zhu Youjian of Chongzhen of Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yousong, became emperor in Nanjing with the support of Ma Shiying, Shi Kefa and others. The following year was the first year of Hongguang. Its country name is still "Ming", and its historical name is "Nan Ming". However, Emperor Hongguang was captured and killed by the Qing Dynasty after only more than a year in his reign. Since then, the royal family of the Zhu Ming Dynasty established several small courts. Among them, in 1646, the king of Ming Han Zhu Benxuan was adopted as emperor by Hao Yaoqi, Li Guo and others. Seventeen years later, in 1663, the Eight Banners of the Qing army, such as Mulima and Tuhai, attacked the anti-Qing armed forces in Fangxian and other places. Emperor Zhu Benxuan was missing in the war. Dingwu Dynasty is the longest timeFangxian was the last base of the small court of Nanming.
Hao Yaoqi, Li Guo and other "Kuidong Thirteen Army" who supported Zhu Benxuan were armed by peasant uprisings at the end of the Ming Dynasty. There was no large city to support them. It is highly mobile and can only deal with the enemy in the mountains and rivers. When Zhu Benxuan proclaimed emperor in Fangxian, he could only make Laofang County the capital because of his ugliness, and Zhu's old house next to Zhu's ancestral hall in Fangxian was the imperial palace.
The old house of Zhu’s family is located to the west of the old town of Fangxian County, to the southeast of the Zhu’s ancestral hall. There is a laneway between the ancestral hall and the old house. This laneway is called Zhu’s house. The alley, Zhu's alley is still there. The approximate scope of the Zhu family's old house is in the area of Zhongxiguan and Xiaxiguan in Chengguan Town, Fangxian County. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, due to the decline of national fortunes and the advancement of foreign forcesIn the 32nd year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (1906), the descendants of the Zhu family were forced to sell the old house of the Zhu family to Norwegian missionaries. Norwegian missionaries built a gospel church here. After liberation, it became the location of Fangxian People's Hospital. With the development of urban and rural construction, it has now become a residential area, and the Zhu family’s old house has disappeared.
It is estimated that the Zhu’s old house covers an area of about twelve or three acres of land and has 108 houses. Most of these houses have white walls and black tiles, and Huizhou buildings with horse head walls higher than the roofs. These more than one hundred Huizhou buildings are independent and self-contained. But they are dependent on each other or connected by alleys, forming a relatively unified whole. In the middle of the Zhu family’s old house is a courtyard with seven houses, which is obviously taller than the surrounding houses. A pair of stone lions stood at the front entrance of the courtyard, which collapsed too high after climbing three stepsThe threshold to enter the yard. The three main houses facing south and north are equipped with attics, and the wooden beams and pillars are carved with various auspicious patterns. It is said that this is the imperial palace where the Emperor Zhu Benxuan of Nam Ming Dingwu lived for 17 years. Outside of this simple and simple imperial palace, in addition to the Zhu family's ancestral hall, there are also places for military training and official reception such as the Zhu Family Garden, Arrow Road, Guest House, and Stables.
Zhu Benxuan (referred to as Zhu Benxuan in "Sin Weilu"), formerly known as Zhu Jingli, is the ninth generation of Han Xian Wang Zhu Song, the son of Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang Sun. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, he was supported by the anti-Qing and Fuming rebels as Emperor Dingwu, the temple name was Pingzong, and the posthumous name was Kutianxiandao Zhiren Zhenxin German Wenfen Wujingsu Dun Kangyuan Emperor. Zha Jizuo’s Nanming history book "Xinweilu" recorded him as follows: "Han Wang Benxuan, after the nineteenth son of King Song, was named Pingliang for the world. Chongzhen tenIn six years, the Li thief became trapped in Shaan by himself. Shixian thieves fell into the Chu, and his army commander Hao Yongzhong was fierce, and the army hoped Yongzhong waved the flag and worked hard, so he was famous as Hao Yaoqi, who was shocked by the enemy. And the death of the thieves, wave the flag in the money, and only serve the king of Han. Since things went bad in Fujian, Han called Zun and changed Yuan Dingwu. After the taste is moved, the lord of the laurels, who are young and old, are not ministers. Guimao, Laiheng was trapped and abandoned Qilian to protect Tanjiazhai. Yongzhong and the two tigers worked together to fight for four days and nights, and the Beixie Huguang Division suffered a big setback. That's it, Wushan can't defend and lose first. Fangshan is defeated, and the Lord of Korea is not dead. "Zha Jizuo (1601-1676) is the ancestor of contemporary writer Jin Yong. He lived in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. He served as the head of the general affairs of the Ministry of War, Fang Langzhong, and Yushi Supervisor in the regime of King Lu in Nanming. A person in history, he recorded the historical events of Emperor Dingwu with high credibility.
In 1663, DingwuEmperor Zhu Benxuan was missing, and at the same time a folk named Zhu Yulong appeared in Qianfang County. Zhu Yulong, whose name is Ji, was named Yuncong. He lived in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties about 400 years ago. The descendants of the Zhu family in Fangxian called him the "first generation ancestor". Zhu Yulong's tomb is on the north side of the Ximen River in Jinfang County, and on the south side of the Hubei Expressway, across the river from Zhu's ancestral hall. The archway, gate, Yimen, Xiangtang and bedroom of Zhu's ancestral hall are on the same axis as Zhu Yulong's tomb. There are indications that Zhu Yulong may be the Dingwu Emperor Zhu Benxuan himself.
1. From the time when Zhu Yulong lived. Zhu Yulong lived in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties about 400 years ago, and his eldest son was passed down for 14 generations. Zhu Benxuan was promoted as emperor in Fangxian in 1646, and he lived in the imperial palace of Zhu's old house in Fangxian for seventeen years.
2. From the perspective of the architecture and decoration of Zhu’s ancestral hall. The existing Fangxian Zhu’s ancestral hall is different from ordinary ancestral halls in terms of architecture and decoration. For example, the main ancestral hall is Hall——On the beam of the main entrance of the sacrificial hall, there are carved two dragons and a big character "di". These unusual things will be introduced later.
3. Judging from Zhu Benxuan’s extraordinary experience. Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang formulated the principles and methods for naming the princes when he entrusted them to various places as princes (one-character king). Han Wangfang The character spectrum is: "Chong Fan Zhengxu, Rong Mo Lang Jingkui, Qi Shao Yu Hao, let Xu price Fanwei. "But when I arrived at the "Qi" school, Zhu Benxuan (Zhu Quanyuan), he encountered great chaos in the Jiashen year. Zhu Benxuan fled to Fangxian and was adopted as emperor. Seventeen years later, The Qing army suppressed the anti-Qing armed forces, and Zhu Benxuan escaped and sneaked into the people. Probably to hide his royal identity, he changed his name to Zhu Yulong and re-established a character tree for his descendants: "Dragon Color Zhao Shiwen, Dayuan Rui Caiyun, Shengde Zhi Tianyong, Xian Liang Yao Fenglin." Zhu Benxuan twice thrilled. Successfully escaped, experienced countless hardships and obstacles, and possessed superior risk prevention and control capabilities. It is very likely that he will live in the folks of Fangxian.
4. From the family origin of the Zhu family in Fangxian County. The Zhu family in Fangxian County existed before the peasant uprising in the end of the Ming Dynasty and built an ancestral hall, as evidenced by the "Hometown of Early Ming Dynasty" on the archway. However, the "first generation ancestor" Zhu Yulong they enshrine now is only a person from the late Ming to the early Qing. Where did Zhu Yulong, who lived in Fangxian for more than 100 years, go to? In fact, in Jundian Town, Fangxian County, Zhibei Village and Daya Mountain, Hualong Town, there are sevenThe residence of the Zhu clan. Some of them took the initiative to disperse and migrate in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties in order to prevent the government from cutting grass and removing roots. It may be that the old family of the Zhu family in the "hometown of the early Ming Dynasty" vacated the house for the given Emperor Wu to make the "imperial palace" and moved out of the initiative. Out of respect for the noble family members, they all named Zhu Benxuan, who came to Fangxian in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, as the "first generation ancestor". Zhu Yulong and Zhu Benxuan may be the same person.
3. Unique buildings and remains
As a The honorary leader of the resistance movement in the mountainous area of northwestern Hubei, Emperor Dingwu Zhu Benxuan did not have a strong capital and a gorgeous palace. However, the Zhu family complex outside Fangxian City is still much taller and unique than ordinary ancestral halls and dwellings. Its aloneThe special features are:
1. Large area and many buildings. The Zhu’s building complex in Fangxian County covers a large area. According to the memories of local elders, only the contiguous buildings of Zhu’s ancestral hall, garden, compound and Zhu’s old mansion had a radius of about one square kilometer at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Together with the old tombs of Zhu’s family and the ancestral hall on the opposite side of the Ximen River, the total area is about more than 2,000 mu. The functional zoning in the building complex is very clear, and official reception, daily living, production and operation, martial arts training, and sacrifice are all integrated. The relatively well-preserved ancestral halls that can be seen now are just a part of them. Among the numerous buildings, the Zhu family’s old house is the palace of Emperor Dingwu; the Zhu’s ancestral hall is a place to receive the leaders of the Anti-Qing Rebellion Army and family sacrifices; the arrow path is the martial arts ground for the rebel soldiers and Zhu’s children; the Zhu’s garden is a singing opera Places for entertainment; part of the Zhu family courtyard and old houses, used for the Zhu clan and scholarsDaily life of soldiers.
2. The ancestral hall architecture has obvious characteristics of royal ancestral halls. The architecture of the Zhu's ancestral hall in Fangxian County is based on the traditional Chinese palace layout to demonstrate the dignity of the royal family. Zhu's ancestral hall is a palace architectural style with a symmetrical layout on the central axis. The courtyard of the ancestral hall consists of five entrances, namely the archway, gate, ritual gate, Xiangtang, and dormitory. The backyard of the ancestral hall has a garden. Xiangtang is the main hall of the ancestral hall. It is also called the sacrificial hall. It is a place where sacrificial ceremonies or clan meetings are held. It is the largest, most exquisite, and ornate building in the entire ancestral hall. The dormitory is a place where the ancestors’ gods or memorial objects are placed, and there is a shrine behind it. The design of the dormitory is ingenious and the workmanship is exquisite, which fully reflects the characteristics of the royal ancestral hall.
3. The ancestral hall is beautifully decorated inside and outside,The carving is delicate. There are many decorations and carvings inside and outside the Zhu family's ancestral hall, mainly dragons, phoenixes, unicorns, pincers, plums, orchids, and vases, especially dragons, with 26 pieces. It heralds the "Supreme", "Safety and Prosperity" and "Good Luck" of the Zhu family. There are exquisite reliefs on both sides of the front hall of the ancestral hall. The content of the reliefs includes the words "Four Admonitions of Cheng Zi" and "Xin You Sui Jing". The reliefs and stone carvings of the hall have auspicious symbols such as the story of filial piety, dragon, phoenix, unicorn, and animals. The front and back corridors are in the style of curved vaulted ceilings, painted with red paint, looking magnificent. The base of the flower window on the outer wall is four three-meter-long rectangular Nanshan stones. The two stones on the left are engraved with reliefs of "Rooster Wearing Crown", "Leadership", "Tianzi Mensheng, Sanyuan and Di", and on the left two stones Engraved with reliefs of "Carp Jumping over Dragon Gate" and "Magpie Deng Mei". There are dragon, phoenix, house and cloud patterns carved in relief on the front eaves of Xiangtang, except for a few of these patterns during the Cultural Revolution.Except for damage, most of them are well preserved. There are a pair of stone drums on both sides of the gate. The stone drums are carved with deer, crane, phoenix and unicorn in relief. The most unique thing is that on the beam of the stone gate of the sacrificial hall, there are carved two double dragons and a big "di" character. In the hierarchical feudal society, the word "di" cannot be used by ordinary families. It seems to suggest to the world the royal identity of the Zhu family's ancestral hall in Fangxian County.
4. Unique orientation and architecture. Generally speaking, the orientation of the ancestral halls in the northwest of Hubei is to face south, while the orientation of Zhu's ancestral halls in Fangxian is to face south, which is quite incompatible with local customs. Its north-facing orientation means that he yearns for the Daming Palace in the northern capital, not forgetting that he is of Zhu Ming's blood. The tomb of the tall "first generation ancestor" Zhu Yulong sits north facing south, facing the ancestral hall across the Ximen River. Both are on the same level and alsoOn the same central axis, the two sides echoed each other in a distance, which makes people think... The existing Zhu's Ancestral Hall in Fangxian County was built in Jiajing forty years (1561) in Ming Dynasty. It has a history of four to five hundred years. It is Hubei One of the oldest and most complete ancestral halls in the province. The Zhu's ancestral hall originally had five courtyards, two courtyards, and two courtyards. There are two courtyards, two courtyards, three bays, and four courtyards. There are actually 26 houses, covering an area of more than 1,000 square meters. The ancestral hall originally had flower walls, round gates, guest houses, arrow paths, pai bangs, horse stables, private schools and other supporting buildings. Now some of the ruins are still clearly visible. This ancestral hall is the architectural style of the Ming Dynasty "Xiwen Shangwu, there are courtyards in the courtyard". The east courtyard is the main hall, which is connected to the arrow road. It has a high roof, large bays, and long depth. It is the most architectural and cultural part of the ancestral hall as a whole. The main hall is divided into a front hall and a front hall. The front hall is the conference hall. It is supported by sixteen large pillars. The arms embrace the thick beams. Apse for sacrificeIn the hall of worship, eighteen large pillars support the solemn temple, and on both sides of the shrine that enshrines the ancestor's spiritual seat, there are carved leafy patterns. The West Yard is a private school for the clan. It is a place where Zhu's children and nearby children enlighten and study. On the ridge of the ancestral hall are sculptures such as "Kirin Gives Children", "Double Dragons Playing with Beads", and "Auspicious Ruyi".
Fangxian County was the place where the Dingwu Imperial Court of the Southern Ming Dynasty established the capital city, and the Zhu’s ancestral hall and other buildings were the imperial palace and official reception place of Emperor Dingwu. Three or four hundred years ago, the bloody anti-purge smoke had long since dissipated; the shrewd emperor Zhu Benxuan, who had survived many deaths and survived many times, has passed away; the old house of Zhu’s family was first used as a palace, and then converted into a gospel church by the Norwegians. Nothing exists; Zhu's ancestral hall is fortunately preserved to this day and has become a key cultural relic protection unit in Fangxian County.
In the long river of history, how many mysteries need to be solved by future generations. In the silent building, there are countless stories waiting for us to tell. Fangxian has such a long ancestral hall of Zhu’s family and the short-term Dingwu Palace.