Talking about the unexpected encounter of “Wowful Disparity”.
In the second year of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (99 BC), there was a reputation of “but let the dragon city fly, not called Huma Duyin Mountain” Li Ling, the eldest grandson of the parachutist Li Guang, led 5,000 infantrymen to assist Li Guangli, the second division general, to attack the Hun Youxian King who was active in the Qilian Mountains and Tianshan Mountains.
The army is progressing smoothly, butJunji Mountain was suddenly ambushed by Shan Yu's main force, and the 5,000 Han army, which had been lonely and deep, was accidentally surrounded by more than 30,000 Xiongnu cavalry like iron barrels, unable to advance or retreat.
At that time, how powerful were the Xiongnu cavalry who came and went like wind and could ride and shoot well?
Chao Cuo of the Han Dynasty was in the middle of "Yan Bing Shi Shu". The Xiongnu had three major advantages that the Han army could not reach: First, the up and down mountains, the access to the streams, and the Mafu of China And also; the second is to be tired of dangerous roads, and gallop and shoot, the Chinese rides and also; the third, the wind and rain, hunger and thirst, the Chinese are the same.
However, this time, Li Ling, who was holding the "sharp weapon" in his hand, was not afraid, and quickly surrounded the camp with chariots. With an order, the Han army sent a thousand crossbows and the Xiongnu cavalry Fall in response to the sound ("Han Shu·Li Ling Biography" "Thousands of crossbows are coming together, and fall in response to the string"), The Han army pursued the victory and shot thousands of Huns cavalry.
When the narrow road meets the brave to win, the fierce battle has just kicked off, but the Han army’s "continuous crossbow"-high-speed shooting and dense arrow rain, formed long-range strikes and powerful lethality, making it invincible and unbeatable. The ruthless Huns cavalry were eclipsed and discouraged.
The Huns were surprised and hurriedly summoned more than 80,000 cavalry from Zuo Xian Wang and You Xian Wang to besiege Li Ling. Fighting again the next day, Li Ling fought alone and wiped out more than 3,000 Xiongnu cavalry.
A few days later, the Han army was besieged by more than ten times the Huns cavalry regiment in a valley. Li Ling commanded the infantry to fight with the Huns cavalry in the woods, and beheaded thousands of the Huns, and used a company The crossbow shot Shan Yu, and Shan Yu went downhill and retreated hurriedly.
"Send Liannu to shoot orders ("Han Shu·Li Ling Biography"). "
Da Shan Yu saw that he led tens of thousands of elite cavalry, attacked thousands of people in the Han military area, but could not be encircled and wiped out. He actually paid a high price for heavy casualties. The prestige was virtually discredited, so he became angry and desperate. However, after a whole day of fierce fighting, the Xiongnu cavalry had no chance of winning except for dropping more than 2,000 dead bodies. They were ready to withdraw helplessly.
Just as the scale of victory began to lean towards the Han army, a rebel named "Guan Gan" ran to the Xiongnu to surrender, invisibly leaking the military secrets of the Han army, which were basically exhausted by the crossbow arrows ("Lingjun There is no way to save, shoot the arrow and do it")!
In the fall of the second year of Tianhan, the second division general Li Guangli rode 30,000 horses to the Xiongnu Youxian King in Qilian Tianshan. MausoleumFive thousand infantry shooters came out of Yanbei for more than a thousand miles. If you want to divide the Huns, you don't need to go to the second division. The mausoleum had not yet returned, but Shanyu surrounded the mausoleum with 80,000 soldiers. There were 5,000 soldiers in the Ling army. After all the soldiers were exhausted, more than half of the soldiers died, and the Xiongnu killed more than 10,000 people. Let us fight for eight days, before reaching Juyan for more than a hundred miles, the Xiongnu blocked the road, and the tomb was lack of food and could not save the soldiers. The mausoleum said: "Report to Your Majesty without a face." Then he surrendered to the Xiongnu ("Historical Records · Biography of General Li").
According to the "Han Shu·Li Ling Biography", "500 thousand arrows per day are exhausted" (Han Army "500 thousand arrows per day Already fired"), with out of ammunition and food, Li Ling, whose strength is very different, tried his best to shoot tens of thousands of Huns cavalry, and after more than half of his casualties, he was captured and surrendered.
Although the Han-Hungarian "Battle of Junji Mountain" was defeated, Sima Qian wasIn ", he gave a high degree of objective evaluation of the Han army’s intrepid combat power and Li Ling’s surpassing bravery:
"Qieling is under five thousand pawns, and is deeply rooted in the battlefield. Tens of thousands of teachers, the captives rescued the dead and healed the wounded, and all the people who lifted their bows together attacked it. Fighting for thousands of miles, fighting for a long time, fighting for a thousand miles, fighting against a deadly enemy, and gaining the deadly power of people, although ancient A famous general."
A strong crossbow as the "King of Cold Weapons" , Was born to be an effective "weapon" for infantry against cavalry.
In the book "Shi Ming·Shi Bing", Liu Xi of the Han Dynasty had a vivid description of the name of the crossbow:
"Crossbow, anger, there is anger. Its handle is called an arm, just like a human arm. The hooker calls teeth, like teeth. The tooth outside said Guo, and Guo is also the rule of tooth. Xia Yue County Knife, its shape is also. An inclusive mouth is like an opportunityThe cardinal of the household is open and closed. "
The historians have verified that the famous crossbow in the Cold Weapon era has appeared in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, and the crossbow has been widely used on the battlefield in the Spring and Autumn Period.
"The world's strong bows and crossbows all come from Han, and they are shot six hundred paces away from Xizi, Shaofu, Shili, and distance ("Warring States Policy·Han Ceyi")".
Crossbow is a kind of bow equipped with arms, mainly composed of crossbow arms, crossbows, bowstrings and crossbow machines. Because it has a longer range than a bow, more lethality, higher hit rate, and simple operation. Low requirements, since its birth, it has become a unique "weapon" for infantry to effectively restrain cavalry.
Compared with the bows and arrows of the same period, the strong crossbow is far and accurate, and has "intensive lethality". .
The extensive development of crossbows in the militaryBenefiting from the invention combination of compound bow and copper crossbow machine, the Western Han Dynasty had a profound influence on the development of strong crossbow. Not only did the crossbow of the Qin Dynasty also add scales, so that the crossbow has a stable trajectory reference, and as the copper crossbow replaces the wooden crossbow, the crossbow body's endurance to tension has been greatly enhanced.
A measurement shows that the highest tension of the waist crossbow wound like a rowing machine can reach 370 kg, which is an incredible level.
In other words, the lethality of the Xiongnu's indispensable bows and arrows and the new and improved weapon of the Han army, the "Long-Fat Crossbow", are not on the same level or channel at all.
Weapons experts test it out that the effective range of bows and arrows that Huns cavalry is good at is basically around 180 meters; while the effective range of the Western Han's continuous crossbow has reached a frightening range of about 500 meters.
Moreover, the "Ten Thousand Crossbows" form a highThe intensive rain of arrows at the rate of fire is as graceful as the primitive "machine gun" in ancient times, and the terrifying long-range and high-density lethality has become a confidant and lingering psychological shadow of the Huns cavalry.
The battlefield weapon of the Western Han Dynasty, the "Long-Fat Crossbow", why did the smashing Huns' cavalry be frightened?
According to scholars’ textual research, in the "Battle of Junji Mountain", the "new weapon" that defeated more with less, and caused heavy damage to the Xiongnu cavalry was the long-range Han Wudi. The powerful "big killer" against the Xiongnu cavalry-fired powerful crossbows.
Why Li Ling, a descendant of the "flying general" Li Guang, can use 5,000 infantry troops to repeatedly defeat and repel tens of thousands of Huns cavalry, relying on this "continuous crossbow" (continuous crossbow), just because Days of fierce battle, after the crossbow arrows were shot, the ammunition was exhaustedAbsolutely, alone and without assistance, he was reluctant to defeat the Huns.
The reason why Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty dared to use the unparalleled "God's Whip" Xiongnu to go to war was to exclude the factors of rapid economic and military improvement and unprecedented prosperity of the country, and holding the advanced weapon of the times, It is also the key and confidence in defeating the enemy.
In the battle against Hungary, in order to improve the mobility of the army, the Han Empire changed the traditional "car-infantry regiment" into the "cavalry regiment" in order to advance with the times. In order to fully suppress the bows and arrows that the Xiongnu is good at, a large number of improved "strong crossbows" and continuous crossbows have been used pioneeringly.
The use of high-speed intensive arrows to suppress the "unstoppable" The Xiongnu cavalry caused them to quickly lose their ability to counter and hedge on the battlefield.
In particular, the new weapon developed by the Western Han Dynasty was improved and developed with a complicated manufacturing process.Entering, the Huns cannot imitate even if they get it on the battlefield, they can only sigh and feel ashamed.
It is precisely because of the severe lag of lethal weapons that the Huns have repeatedly fallen behind and be beaten in the face of new military technology, and they have suffered. I think of the "War of Hexi" and the "Fighting of the Wolf", which were "Golden Ge and Iron Horse, Swallowing Thousands of Miles as Tigers". How could the Huns' slaying cavalry who once swept Eurasian and impossibly fled and heard about the "crossbow" Change to describe it!