After the publication of the archaeological data of the Tomb of Haihunhou in Nanchang, the academic circles conducted an in-depth discussion on the issue of Liu He's failure. Some experts believe that from the analysis of the materials in the tomb of Haiyunhou and the existing literature, "prostitution" is an excuse for Huo Guang to dethrone Liu He in order to achieve his own political dictatorship; some experts disagree and believe that Huo Guang deposed Liu He's The main reason is that what Liu He did is contrary to Huo Guang's ruling philosophy and practice. The latter seems more convincing.
Why did Huo Guang make Liu He the emperor? In the first year of Yuanping (74 BC), Emperor Zhao of Han died without heir. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty had six sons. In addition to Emperor Zhaodi of the Han Dynasty, the three of Prince Wei, the king of Qi, and the king of Changyi died early. King Yan conspired to rebel and only the king of Guangling was still alive. Therefore, when the officials discussed the choice of heir to the throne, the “King of Guangling”, However, because Huo Guang felt uneasy in his heart, the successor to the throne did not settle down. This shows that Huo Guang's power is hot. Huo Guang's inner anxiety has its own reasons. The officials valued the closeness of the blood between Guangling King Liu Xu and Zhaodi Liu Fuling. Liu Xu and Liu Fulin are both sons of Han Wu Emperor Liu Che, Liu Xu is Liu Fulin’s fourth brother, Liu Fulin is Liu Xu’s younger brother (sixth brother), and Huo Guang both values the closeness of the patriarchal blood relationship. Also value the "Tao Xing" of the heir to the throne. IfPurely considering the close relatives of the patriarchal blood, King Guangling is undoubtedly the undisputed heir to the throne, but considering the personal qualities and political correctness of the heir to the throne, King Guangling is not the most suitable heir to the throne. Ban Gu's "Han Shu": Xu grows strong, so he can enjoy leisurely travel, carry the tripod, fight bears and beasts empty-handed. The movement cannot be saved, so he cannot be a Han heir in the end. During Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, King Guangling had already been excluded from the ranks of heirs to the throne because of “being out of his way and not used by the first emperor”. As the Minister of Gu Ming, Huo Guang faithfully implemented the policies of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in his later years. He did not want to make the Guangling King as the emperor and violate the order of the first emperor, nor did he want to establish the "innocent" as the emperor. Because of the patriarchal system, Huo Guang is very contradictory. When Huo Guang was indecisive, the official Langguan wrote: "Only when it is appropriate, it is possible to waste the long and to build the few", so that the contradiction can be resolved.
Only from the performance of King Guangling after Emperor Zhao ascended the throne, Huo GuangbuliIt makes sense that King Guangling is the emperor. When the Emperor Zhao of the Han Dynasty, Liu Xu coveted the throne and made the witch curse. Liu He was abolished the throne, and Guangling King Liu Xu was very happy. He believed that Emperor Zhaodi of Han Dynasty died early because of his use of witchcraft. Now Liu He has only become the emperor of the 27th day, which is also due to witchcraft. After Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty succeeded to the throne, the king of Guangling Liu Xu continued to use witchcraft, but was accused of suicide.
Regarding the choice of successor, Liu He was the most "respecting relative" in blood relationship with Emperor Zhao after excluding the "innocent" Guangling King. Liu He's father, Liu Li, was the son of Liu Che, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. In the fourth year of the Tian Han Dynasty (97 years ago), Liu Li was named the king of Changyi and became the first king of Changyi in the Western Han Dynasty. In the first month of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (88 BC), the king of Changyi, Liu Li, died, and he was named the king of mourning, and was called the king of mourning in Changyi. The reason for the posthumous title of lamenting the king is that in the third year of Zhenghe (90 BC), Liu Li’s uncle Li Guangli conspired with the prime minister Liu Qushou to promote Mrs. Li’s son Liu Li as the crown prince before he went to the Huns. Was beheaded, Li Guangli surrendered to the Huns and his family was destroyed. After Liu Li died, Liu He, who was only five years old, became the second king of Changyi in the Western Han Dynasty. Liu Fulin and Liu He are uncles and nephews. It can be seen from this that Huo Guang’s standard of "discussion and establishment" is the distance of blood relationship and the consideration of "political correctness", rather than focusing on the selfishness of his own dictatorship. This is alsoConfirmed by Emperor Xuan's ascension. Lu Wenshu once said that after Liu He was abolished, Huo Guang "sit in the court, and the Prime Minister agreed to stand. The king of Guangling is no longer in use, and the king of Yanchao repudiated, his son is not in the discussion. The only close relatives are the descendants of Prince Wei. The emperor's great-grandson is in the folk, and it is called Shu Yan. Emperor Xuan inherited the throne because of the Witch-Gu incident. Although he has no "respect" at all, he is a "close relative".
Xin Deyong, a professor in the Department of History of Peking University, believes that Huo Guang’s switch to Changyi Wang Liu He was probably based on the following considerations: Liu He is the grandson of Emperor Wu. He has a low generation and is easy to control; he is less than 20 years old and political Shallow experience; Liu He loves to play, lacks in strategy, better control. Huo Guangli and Liu He may have this reason, but it is by no means the main reason. Perhaps Huo Guang has no such consideration at all.
The main charges in the abolition of Liu He’s book are "dissoluteness and confusion, loss of emperor’s courtesy, chaos system". Liu He’s life is corrupt and he does not abide by the laws of the monarchy, such as The emperor’s funeral did not cry, did not eat vegetarian food, drank and had fun, grabbed beautiful women and hid them in the clothes car. Although these were not the main reasons why Liu He was deposed, it can be seen that Liu He has no emperor's capital. Archaeologists found the earliest portraits of Confucius and the life records of Confucian disciples in He’s tomb. Yang Jun, a researcher at the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and the archaeological team leader of the tomb of Liu He at Haiyunhou, said, “Like Yan Hui and Zi GongThere are portraits and biographical descriptions of these people, more than 3,000 bamboo slips, many of which are books. "The archaeological team also found "The Analects", "Historical Records", "Medical Classics", "Book of Filial Piety", "Medical Books", "Japanese Books" and so on in the tomb, especially the Qi Analects version that was lost for more than 1800 years. Precious. Various signs indicate that Liu He, the owner of the tomb, was a cultural person influenced by Confucianism. Some experts responded: “In fact, after Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty dominated Confucianism, these Confucian classics were generally popular among the aristocracy, reflecting a kind of It is hard to say how much research he himself has done on the characteristics of the times. "Even if Liu He is a literate person and he has studied the Confucian classics, does it mean that he must be an upright gentleman and a Dao Mingjun?
Fu Kui and Bu Xianqun in "A Few Views on Liu He Lifei" "It is said that many scholars believe that "fornication" is an excuse for Huo Guang to dethrone Liu He. The real reason is Liu He's seizure of power. After Liu He took the throne, he did notThe most typical example of the eagerness to seize power is when Xia Housheng reminded Liu He that "the ministers have conspirators", Liu He put Xia Housheng to jail ("Hanshu·Xiahousheng Biography"). This is actually a political expression. Moreover, when the officials of Changyi were punished and killed, they shouted "Resist the continuity and rebel against the chaos" "Han Shu·Huo Guangzhuan", which is a clear proof that Liu He never supported the seizure of power by the officials of Changyi, because the people who had the power to make decisions The person can only be Liu He. Someone among Liu He's officials suggested seizing power. From the perspective of the master-slave relationship, this is the duty and duty of the official, but this does not mean that the Changyi King Group has really taken action.
According to reports, during a trip, Yuzhang’s prefect pawn Sun Wanshi asked Liu He: When you were abolished, why didn’t you behead the general, but let others take away the seal and ribbon of the emperor? ? Liu He said: Missed the opportunity. Sun Wanshi also said that you will soon be crowned king in Yuzhang. Liu Hehui: It should be so, but it should not be discussed now. This conversation was reported, and Emperor Han Xuan knewDao Liu He couldn't get up again, so he issued an order not to be held accountable, and only robbed Liu He's 3,000 households. If this passage is really what Liu He said, it is not difficult to explain. When Liu He was in power, he did not harm Huo Guang and took power. Later, he reflected that if he had known that Huo Guang wanted to abolish himself, he would premeditate to seize power. If there was such an idea, it only happened when he was abolished and afterwards. The most important thing is that Liu He had a weak foundation when he was in power and did not have the strength to seize power. Even if he had the idea of seizing power, he could only hide it deep in his heart.
Fu Kui and Bu Xianqun believe that Liu He has no great ambitions and national governance skills, and belongs to the Western Han royal family with a corrupt lifestyle. For pleasure, he used the emperor's power to arbitrarily recruit manpower and materials, which was inconsistent with the overall situation of social development at that time and Huo Guang's political ideas. Therefore, it is regarded by the academic circles as Huo Guang’s crime of snatching Liu He, "Twenty-seven days since receiving the seal, next to the messengerAt noon, Chijiezhao was levied and issued by the officials, "Every thousand one hundred and twenty-seven things" ("Hanshu·Huo Guangzhuan") was the real reason why Liu He was abolished.... As Huo Guang who faithfully implemented the policies of Emperor Wu in his later years, Naturally, it is not acceptable for Liu He to squander the power of the people unscrupulously. This is the essence of the connotation of Liu He's "prostitution", that is, "fornication" refers to Liu He's extravagance and desire; "chaos" corresponds to "chaotic man" "System", in addition to the crimes listed by Huo Guang, the most fundamental refers to the political principles and political principles of Liu He and Huo Guang’s advocacy during the period of Huo Guang’s administration of "because of punishment and rest with the people" ("Hanshu·Zhaodi Jizan") The idea is contrary.
As for Yu Chang The reason why the officials of Yi Qun were condemned, Fu Kui and Bu Xianqun said: The charge of the officials of Changyi was "sitting on death and counseling, and trapping the king in evil." Liu He's "prostitution" was mostly related to the officials of Changyi. Related, such as: "make women from the official government carry clothes in the car, and live in the house"; "the official official is more consistent, and the inner Changyi is used to slaughter more than two hundred official slaves from the official government, often with the residence forbidden. "Xiang"; "Send the Chang'an chef San Tai Lao with the temple room, worship and drink with the official"; "Take the princes, the princes, the two thousand stone coffins and the ink slow, and the yellow coffins and Pei Changyilang Officials are exempted from slavery" and so on ("Hanshu·Huoguang Biography"). From the perspective of the legal system, Liu He was abolished for "prostitution", and his officials and servants were bound to be served. This is the Western Han Dynasty.The rule of law is determined by the way of governing the country with the rule of law and the "Overlord and Dao" ("Han Shu·Yuan Di Ji").
For the Langzhong Ling Gong Sui, Lieutenant Wang Ji and Shi who once advised Liu He Wang Shi and others, or "to reduce the death by the number of admonitions, the bun is the city Dan" ("Hanshu·Gong Sui Biography"), or "the theory of reducing the death, return home without teaching" ("Hanshu·Wang Shi Biography"). It can be seen that Huo Guang adopted a different approach to the Changyi group of officials, and did not indiscriminately kill innocents because of their political background. This shows that Huo Guang’s principle and purpose in handling the Liu He incident is to resolutely combat the political trends and society since Emperor Wu’s later years. The development of political behaviors and forces that are incompatible with the situation is not to remove obstacles to personal dictatorship.
Politically speaking, Huo Guang has protected Liu He to a certain extent in order to win over the Liu family and stabilize the political situation. When the officials suggested that Liu He be moved to Fangling County in Hanzhong, "the empress dowager returned to He Changyi and gave Tang Muyi two thousand households" ("Han Shu·Huo Guang Biography"), this obviously came from Huo Guang's instruction, indicating that Huo Guang did not rush to kill Liu He. The purpose of deposing Liu He was not a political struggle for personal power and interests, but also included the need to stabilize the political situation and promote social development. .
After Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty lost his expedition to the Western Regions in his later years and the Wugu incident subsided , Made a serious reflection on the gains and losses of his own countryPolicy changes. The historical book "Guilty Edict" records: "Since I came to the throne, I have done madness and disobedience, making the world sorrowful and unrepentant. Since this matter has harmed the people and spent the world, let it go." It emphasized that "Today's business is forbidden to be harsh. Violence, stop being good at giving, and relying on the agriculture. Repairing horses and renewing the order to make up for the vacancy, there is no lack of military equipment." As Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty "reformed late, the ruling group headed by Huo Guang deepened peace and peace with the people." The construction of the country’s strategy led to the emergence of the Zhaoxuan Zhongxing situation praised by later generations in the mid-Western Han Dynasty.