Niugao (1087-1147), with the word Boyuan, was born in Lushan, Ruzhou (now Lushan County, Pingdingshan City, Henan), a famous general in the Southern Song Dynasty. Niu Gao was born in a peasant family. He was a shooter for the first time. He practiced martial arts and was good at riding and shooting. At the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty, people gathered to fight against gold. In Shaoxing three years (1133), he joined the Yuejia Army and Changsheng Army. Niu Gao uses double mace, which is made by gold. Later, he was attached to Yue Fei, and he praised him, and made great achievements in the battle against Jin. Participated in the suppression of the Yang Yao uprising. After Yue Fei was killed, he was killed by Qin Hui because he always opposed Song Jin Yihe.
Birthplace of real name
Lushan of Niugao Ruzhou
Birth time of font size
Time of death in the era
Song Dynasty 1147
Ethnic groups Main Achievements
The Hans fought against Jin Jun, Ping Ding Zhongxiang, Yang Yao
Deputy Chief of Ma Bujun, Jinghu South Road
Hunting and raising a family
There are few historical records about Niugao’s experience before joining the army.
That year, Shibeigou Village where Niugao was located Located in deep mountains and old forests, traffic congestion, and sparsely populated. Niu Gao made a living by selling firewood before joining the army, and depended on his mother, wife and children. Niu Gao is as powerful as an ox, and he walks as fast as he can carry a load of more than 500 kilograms. Every time he goes up the mountain to cut the firewood, he cuts the firewood. A sturdy tree is used as a pole, and then it carries more than 500 kilograms of firewood into Lushan County to sell.
It seems difficult to satisfy the family by selling firewood alone.Niu Gao thought of using his shooting and hunting skills at this time for the daily expenses of the court. Niu Gao has been fond of slingshots and archery since he was a child. With continuous practice, his shooting skills have greatly improved. There are many forests and birds in Shibeigou Village, which gives Niu Gao the opportunity to fully display his shooting skills. Every time Niugao goes to the city to sell firewood, he has to carry some hare, pheasant and other prey, so his life is not worrying. More importantly, Niu Gao not only developed a strong body during the hard work day after day, but also developed his shooting and hunting skills to the point of proficiency, invisibly making some preparations for his future struggle against gold. .
In the late Northern Song Dynasty, the Jin Army invaded. At the point of the disaster, Niu Gao decided to join the anti-golden team to defend his hometown. Because he was good at shooting and hunting, he went to Lushan County to become a shooter, mainly responsible for dailyPublic security, but also assisted in training the militia to prepare for the anti-golden war.
Later, Lu Shan was captured by the Jin army. So Niu Gao organized his own forces to fight against the Golden Soldiers. Niu Gao has high martial arts skills, and he is bold and straightforward. When he gave an order, there were crowds of people who responded. Before joining the Yuejia Army, he organized the people to block the enemy several times in the area of Pingdingshan, and dealt a powerful blow to the Jinbing.
In the 4th year of Jianyan (1130), the Jin Army invaded the south of the Yangtze River and returned north through Jingxiang. Wanyan pulled the speed away and led the Golden Army to cross the river again, passing Jingmen (now Hubei) northward, and entering the area of Pingdingshan in early April.
Wanyan Ba Lisu and others are quite familiar with the terrain in the west of Beijing. Before that, they used Wanyan Yinshu to go deep into the hinterland of Beijing to carry out cruel destruction. This time, the Jin Army passed between Lushan County and Ye County and entered the boundary of Baofeng County, preparing to cross Rushui and continue to withdraw north. They came in the eveningA village far away, this village is called Songcun (now Baiguishan Reservoir submerged area). Wan Yan Yuying decided to rest here for one night and cross over to Rushui the next day. Wan Yan Ba quickly agreed. But Yelvmawu said: ‘This place is named Songcun. It is very ominous after the name of the country of death of Song Dynasty. There is no need to choose another place to stay. "Wan Yan Yuying confidently said: "There are any taboos here, so I renamed it Jincun. "
In fact, before the Jinbing entered the boundaries of Baofeng County, Niu Gao had learned of the opponent’s marching route and expected that the depositor would camp in Songcun. So he immediately launched the town soldiers and Folks. After hearing this, the folks all share the same hatred. They are ready to fight with tools, lay ambushes, wait for the arrival of the golden soldiers, and prepare for a nest.
It is early summer and has been running and fighting for more than half a year. , The soldiers of the Golden Army were eager to return, and the Jurchens were particularly heat-resistant, so they dismounted their horses and unarmed to prepare dinner. Suddenly, there were countless shouts.Some of the Song dynasty village soldiers attacked the Jin army with weapons and agricultural tools. After all, Wanyan Ba Lisu was a veteran, and he hurriedly challenged his soldiers, but it was too late. The hungry golden army was smashed and fleeing. Wanyan Ba Lisu and Wanyan Huoying led only a hundred golden soldiers to escape. They finally collected and scattered, with fewer than 5,000 people, and fled back to Taiyuan.
Yeluma Wu is not lucky for the other two golden generals. He and more than 50 golden soldiers were heavily surrounded, and in the end he was the only one left. Yelv Mawu was still fighting against the trapped beast. He held a hand knife and shouted: ‘Who dares to challenge me? As soon as the voice fell, I saw the village soldier stepped out of the tunnel, and a Song general wore a double-eyed iron pouch, holding an iron pen and gun, stepped off the black horse and entered the enclosure. Yelvma slashed at the opponent with five knives. The general Song used an iron spear, but he used the back of the gun to knock Yelvma five off the horse. In a burst of cheers, the village soldier captured Yelvma five alive..
The general who captured Yelvmawu alive was Niu Gao, 43 years old at the time. This battle not only killed a large number of enemies, but also seized huge spoils. After the battle, Niu Gao personally interrogated the prisoners of war in Song Village.
After the victory in the battle of Song Village, Niu Gao led the village soldiers to defeat the Jin soldiers at Dengjiaqiao, Lushan (located in Dengzhai, Xinji Township, Lushan County). ”
Enter the Yue Family Army
In the two anti-golden victory, Niu Gao's reputation spread far and wide, and Jin Jun was even more afraid of him by three points. At the same time, these two battles laid a good foundation for his future anti-gold career, allowing him to move from home to the whole country.
Because of the merits of the two anti-golden campaigns organized in his hometown, Niu Gao was promoted to the ranks of the Western Road Envoys and Cai, Tang, and Xinjun towns. In the third year of Shaoxing (1133), Yue Fei took charge of military affairs in Jiangxi and Hubei, and decided that Xianghan would march into the Central Plains and regain lost ground. Niu Gao rushed to Lin'an (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang) to meet Zhao Gou of Song Gaozong, Chen Liuyu must be defeated, and the Central Plains can recover. Zhao Gou placed Niu Gao's subordinate under the command of Yue Fei, and Niu Gao joined the Yue family army.
In fact, before Niu Gao joined the Yue family army, the two had a lot of contacts and friendship. Niu Gao was older than Yue Fei, and because of his outstanding combat exploits, he was highly respected by Yue Fei. Since then, Niu Gao has been serving as the deputy commander of the Yue Family Army.Fighting side by side, wrote an epic anti-gold history. After Yue Fei saw Niu Gao, he was very happy and appointed Niu Gao as the soothing envoy of Tang, Deng, Xiang, and Ying, and later Niu Gao as the commander of the central region.
Capture Wang Song alive
In Shaoxing four years (1134), the puppet general Li Cheng colluded with the Jinbing invasion and broke the six counties of Xiangyang. Wang Song occupied Suizhou, Yue Fei sent Niu Gao to fight. Niu Gao took less than 3 days to capture Suizhou, captured Wang Song alive, captured 5,000 enemies, and regained Xiangyang. Jinbing attacked Huaixi, Yue Fei ordered Niu Gao to cross the river first to meet the enemy. Puppet Qi sent 5,000 cavalry to attack Luzhou (now Hefei, Anhui), Niu Gao came out, and the enemy was defeated without a fight. Niu Gao pursued the victory for more than 30 miles, killing most of the enemy army, and beheading his deputy Dutong and other generals.
Capture Yang Yao alive
In the fifth year of Shaoxing (1135), Niu Gao accompanied Yue Fei to conquer Yang Mei. Yang Yao was defeated and attempted to commit suicide by throwing water into the water and was captured by Niu Gao .
In the ten years of Shaoxing (1140), Yue Fei marched into the Central Plains, Niu Gao was ordered to attack the west of Beijing, invincible, and reached the coast of the Yellow River. Niu Gao has experienced many battles throughout his life and made numerous contributions.
In the tenth year of Shaoxing (1140), the Jinren broke the covenant and Niu Gao followed Yue Fei into the Central Plains. Under Yue Fei's command, Niu Gao led his troops to invincibility and reached the banks of the Yellow River. He was born to death in many battles against Xuchang and Bianjing. After repeated battles and victories, he made great contributions to regaining the lost ground in the Central Plains. Because of the greatest contribution, he was promoted to the commanding envoy of Tianwu Sixiang and the envoy of the German army. The Privy Council managed all affairs with Niu Gao. After the abolition of the Xuanfu Division, Niu Gao was changed to the control of the left army of the Ezhou imperial army stationed in Zha, and he was promoted to the deputy commander of the horse infantry on Zhendingfu Road, and he was transferred to the Ning Guojun Chengxuan Envoy and the deputy commander of the horse infantry on Jinghu South Road.
Death by poisoning
Regarding the death of Niu Gao, historical records say that after Qin Hui killed Yue Fei, he was very afraid of Niu Gao. On the third day of March in the seventeenth year of Shaoxing (1147), Qin Hui secretly ordered all of Tianshizhong to control Tianshizhong, in the name of banquets, Use poisoned wine to kill Niugao. Before he died, Niu Gao said angrily: "Niu Gao is 61 years old (xu-year-old), from an official to an attendant, it is enough, what I hate is the harmony between the north and the south, so that I can't die in the horse leather, but die under the eaves!"
After Niu Gao died, his bones were buried at the entrance of Ziyun Cave, Jianmenguan, Qixialing, West Lake, Hangzhou, facing Yue Fei's tomb. A stele is erected in front of the tomb, and its inscription reads "Tomb of Hou Niugao in Song Fuwen". Out of his reputation for admiring Niu Gao, there have been an endless stream of people who came to his grave to mourn and worship for nearly a thousand years.
People’s tomb site
Niugaoyuan’s tomb was cleaned up in 1955. Gushan tomb It was obsolete, rebuilt in 1983 and rebuilt in 1987. The current tomb is located at the entrance of Ziyun Cave, Jianmenguan, Qixialing, West Lake, Hangzhou.Stone walls are laid, and the soil is sealed for planting grass. The diameter is 3.5 meters and the height is 1.8 meters. The outer ring-shaped short wall, surrounded by mountains and roads. In front of the tomb, a stele of "Tomb of Niugao of Song Fu Wenhou" is erected, and a stone workshop with two pillars is built in front of the tomb passage. Tombstones and stone workshops are rebuilt.
Volume 9 of "Xihu New Records" records: "The tomb of Song Fuwen Hou Niugao, in the south of Ziyun Cave, Jianmenling, was newly built."
Niugao tomb address
The tomb of Niugao was rebuilt in the first year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (1875) and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.
The current tomb was rebuilt in 1983. The tomb sits west to east and is a circular ring seat with a plane diameter of 3.5 meters and a height of 1.8 meters.
The tombstone is engraved with "Song Fu Wenhou Niugao Tomb", there is a semi-circular Huilong wall behind the tomb and on both sides, and on the right side is the "Rebuilt Fu Wenhou Niu Cemetery" in the first autumn of the Qing Dynasty. "monument. In front of the tomb, there is a tomb passage with a length of 13.7 meters and a width of 3 meters. A stone archway with a height of 4 meters is placed in the middle. On the pillars of the tomb, Xu Wei wrote a couplet of "general spirit is high for the ages, and the earth-shattering heroic wind accompanies the king of E". The whole cemetery is covered with bamboo, simple and solemn, facing the Yue Tomb.
In order to commemorate Niu Gao, there is a Niu Gao Yiguan Tomb in Lushan, Henan.
After Niu Gao died, his hometown people built a tomb for him and a monument for him. The "Stone Stele Gou" was named after this stone monument. At that time, in order to prevent the robbery of the tomb, the tomb maker did not clearly mark the specific location of the tomb, but planted two linden trees on the far sides of the tomb. Unfortunately, the stele was later pulled away to build a bridge, and two old linden trees were also felled in the late 1950s.
Nothing about Niugao survived in Shibeigou Village, which made Zhang Fuying and the other villagers deeply regret. But when it comes to Niu Gao's heroic loyalty, the villagers still cannot conceal their pride. The villagers hope that the higher-level cultural and cultural relics department can pay attention to it, collect relevant historical materials and cultural relics, and build a memorial facility for Niugao in Shibeigou Village, which will be remembered by future generations.
"Song History": "Zhang Xian and other five men are Yue Fei tribesmen, feared by the enemy, and theyJie Ye; But either he did not fight or died with anger, but Xian did not prove that he died unjustly in the prison, and his husband was miserable! ”
Influence of later generations
Among the Henan door god figures, there is the image of Niu Gao. The use of weapons is a double whip, which means good luck and great life.
Niu Gao in the novel "Shuo Yue Quan Zhuan" by Qian Cai in the Qing Dynasty It was Zhao Gongming who sat down on the reincarnation of the black tiger and was born in Shaanxi. He made a pair of iron mace and became brothers with Yue Fei and others. He strayed into Biyun Mountain when he was visiting Dongting Lake and worshipped Bao Fang as his teacher. You have to wear two treasures, a cloud arrow and a broken wave, to catch Yang Yao alive.
After Yue Fei died, he assisted Yue Lei to levy gold, and repeatedly helped the army to turn into auspiciousness. On the back of the surgery, putJin Wushu was so angry that he laughed and died, returning to heaven. In the novel, it is called "the tiger rides the dragon's back, angers to death, and laughs to kill Niu Gao".
Niu Gao is one of the more distinctive and full-character characters in the book. He is the most rebellious, innocent and cute. Reckless but resourceful, violent but humorous.
Folktale "Niu Gao Asking for the Way": Niu Gao asked an old man for directions, and he immediately roared: "Hey, old man! My master asked you, where is the small school going?" The old man not only Instead of showing him the way, he angrily scolded him as a "darker". After a while, Yue Fei also came here. He first got off the stirrup and dismounted, and then stepped forward to salute: "Excuse me, my husband, did you ever see a dark horse rider? Which road did he go?" The old man was very polite when he saw Yue Fei. Then patiently showed him the way. Selected into the fifth grade Chinese textbook published by Jiangsu Education Edition.
Peking Opera Image
Niu Gao's facial makeup is a gray face with three tile faces, bird-eye sockets and thin eyebrows, symbolizing wit; wide nose sockets indicate majestic and mighty. He wears a shawl helmet, black beard, black ear hair, and a hard back. Red ears hanging down the ears of the helmet enhance the vividness of the shape.