From: Yixian Tourism
Under the Yongning Mountain, Yixian County, Hebei, the Qingxi Mausoleum, the last emperor's tomb complex in the Qing Dynasty, stands quietly. It was the resting place of the four emperors and concubines of Yongzheng, Jiaqing, Daoguang, and Guangxu. Its land, where the universe gathers beautifully, hides wind and breath; its mausoleum, either grand or exquisite, shows the king's atmosphere. Walking into the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, every place tells the connection between survival and death, the entanglement between family affection and power. The Western Mausoleum of Qing Dynasty is worthy of being a world cultural heritage site.
Why did Emperor Yongzheng abandon the Qing Dynasty Tomb and choose another site?
What are the little-known stories during the construction of the Qing Dynasty Tomb?
In the Tomb-sweeping season, be cautious to catch up.
Let us come closer together, the dusty past of the Qing Xiling Tomb!
Mysterious legend of ancestral mausoleum
Water has its roots and trees have roots. When discussing the Fengshui of the imperial mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty, one must start with its "ancestral mausoleum".
The Qing dynasty started from the great ancestor of the Qing Dynasty, Nurhachiji. His distant ancestor Meng Temu was posthumously named "the original emperor of Zhaozu".The pro-Takes and others also each have titles, and the four are collectively referred to as the "Four Patriarchs of Zhao, Xing, Jing and Xian". The burial place of the ancestors-Qingyong Tomb in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province, was naturally elevated to the ancestral tomb of the Qing imperial family.
Yongling Four Ancestor Monuments
The "four ancestors" are different, but the architectural style and scale of the monuments are all the same, just like "four generations under one roof" ". This kind of buring method, which does not pay attention to hierarchy, no longer appears in the mausoleum built after the Qing Dynasty entered the Pass (Photo courtesy / Visual China).
According to legend, in the last years of the Ming Dynasty, Nurhachi's great-grandfather Fuman was defeated by other tribes in Changbai Mountain. Nurhachi's grandfather carried his father's ashes and found a place to settle for his tribe again.
One day, while staying overnight at the Suzi River, the urn was placed on a branch of a tree. The next morning, the casket was wrapped in the tree and could not be taken out. The Fengshui master told him: “This is a treasured place of Fengshui. There is Hulan Hada (Chimney Mountain) in the front, and Longgang Mountain in the back. There are 12 mountain bags in Longgang Mountain, and your family will have 12 emperors." Nurhachi’s grandfather With the tree as the top of the treasure, the urn was buried, and he lived in Hetuala not far from here.
Later, a clothing mound was built here for Zhaozu. Decades later, Nurhachi's grandfather and father were mistakenly killed by the Ming Dynasty in a rebellion and were buried next to the sacred tree. Nurhachi, on the grounds that his father’s father was murdered, raided his army and committed a crime, which was initiated by a new dynasty.The starting point, and the Qing Dynasty has indeed produced the 12th generation of True Dragon Emperor.
On Baoding’s Qingzhao Tomb in Shenyang, there is a large elm tree. It was planted instead of the ancient Baoding elm after its death in the 1980s. It was called "Shenyang elm". According to legend, the ashes of Fuman, the ancestor of the Aixinjue Luo family, occupied a dragon-veined sacred elm before the Qing Dynasty won the country, so Zhaoling Baoding also imitated the planting for auspiciousness.
The mystery of Yongzheng "moving house"
In the early years of the Qing Dynasty, there were two storms of moving tombs.
In 1621, Nurhaci decided to move the capital to Liaoyang as "Tokyo". Three years later, when the new capital was completed, Nurhachi moved the ancestral tombs of his ancestors, fathers and many other relatives from Yongling to Tokyo, which was called Tokyo Tomb.
Shunzhi returned the remains of his second ancestor to Yongling, which formed the "three tombs outside the Guan": in addition to the ancestral tomb, Fuling where Nurhachi was buried, and Zhaoling where Emperor Taiji was buried, They were all built when the capital Shengjing (now Shenyang) was established.
The picture shows the Chidao and Minglou of Tailing. Minglou is the tallest building in Tailing. There is a cinnabar stele inside. The face of the stele is written in Manchu, Han and Mongolian characters, inscribed "Sejong The Tomb of Emperor Xian" (Photography/Gong Yuexian).
As we all know, Yongzheng was finally buried in the Xiling of Yixian County, nearly 300 kilometers away from the Eastern Tomb of the Qing Dynasty. Before moving the capital, he did not follow Emperor Kangxi. The burial in the mausoleum broke the ancestral system of "sons are buried with their fathers", and once aroused all kinds of suspicions among today's people.
There is a saying that he "changes the edict to usurp the throne" and "seeking the father to force the mother", so He has a bad heart and dare not approach his parents; another way of saying that he is "great for his work" and set up a new mausoleum to highlight himself; others say that because Yi County is close to Zijing Pass, as the southwest gateway to the capital, it has been a must for the military since ancient times. To fight for the land, build a mausoleum here, raise the administrative standards, and send more troops to guard, so he created another mausoleum for the sake of the country.The political and military stability of the family...
However, numerous historical records still lead us to the reason for pursuing "feng shui", which is simple and complicated.
How "mysterious" is Xiling Fengshui?
Looking north from Tailing’s case mountain—Spider Mountain, the mighty Yongning Mountain stretches a barrier behind Tailing, and the curved Jincheng water embraces the mausoleum. In the middle, the neat pine trees of Shinto form a guard of honor. From the perspective of Feng Shui,The mountains surrounded by east and west are not far and near, forming a wide "tang". The waterways and pine forests can help the Tibetan wind and breath. This is the image of good luck.
The situation of Xiling Mountain is perfect. From the perspective of modern science, such a terrain can block the wind, sand and cold currents in the northwest, and can fully absorb the sunlight and rain from the southeast. It is an ideal space. But this is not enough.
Feng Shui also needs to examine the "water". The water in Xiling can be described as gathering, gentle and affectionate. In this family of water, the main waters are Yongding River and Hutuo River. The dry water is like a retaining wall. It is the Zhongyi River and Juma River. The water that brings vitality is underground. The remaining water flows include the Beiyi River and Several tributaries.
The shape of the water is also very important. Feng Shui pays special attention to the bending and embracing of water. The many currents in the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, surrounded by left and right, all meet the requirements of encircling sentimentality. There is a wind in front of Tailing DahongmenThe so-called "Jincheng Water" in the water is the water that is round like a besieged city; and in the mausoleum, there are lines of "Jade Belt Water" that wrap around and protect the buildings in the mausoleum like a slender belt.
Prince Yi-an extra-standard garden bed
Lou, Laishui County, Hebei, about 30 kilometers away from the Qingxi Mausoleum In the Manchu Township of the village, there is one of the largest Qing dynasty patriarchal gardens-Prince Yi's garden. It covers an area of 600 acres and has more than 30 buildings, super-specification and super luxurious. The Longen Hall, the main hall of worship, is seven rooms wide, two more rooms than Yongzheng Tai Tomb. After death, the prince who can be worthy of such a grand honor is the only one in the entire Qing Dynasty.
The Dragon Tablet with the inscription of "Loyalty, Honesty, Diligence, Diligence, Lianming and Shuo Yixian" is the first building left in Prince Yi’s Garden. The tall white marble tablet stands Above Fengqian, the momentum is majestic, behind which are the flame archway, the monument and the archway, which show the dignity of the owner of the tomb (Photography/Wang Zicheng).
Why Prince Yi can enjoy such grace
At the beginning of Yongzheng’s succession, the political situation was turbulent. Yongzheng said, fortunately, there was Yunxiang’s auxiliary government: "At the beginning of the auxiliary government, Aqina (referring to Yunqi) contained evil intentions and disturbed the country. Kodo is a domineering blessing, seizing the power to attract power. In fact, Prince Yi is quite independent of it, calm and strong.Did not let the traitorous party succeed. "
How did Yunxiang assist the government? He was involved in almost all major national events in the early years of the Yongzheng dynasty. Even the site selection of the Yongzheng Emperor’s Mausoleum was handed over to him. There were many positions, and he was well organized. , Very effective. Yongzheng praised: "It is the pillar of the country and a model for the world. "
In the eighth year of Yongzheng (1730), Yunxiang died of illness, and Yongzheng died. He went to the memorial ceremony and mourned several times. There is such a sentence in the Yongzheng mourning: "Wang Shi can help me rule the world, Zhen Shi Lai Wangyi Shengping. "
In order to express his longing, Yongzheng even ignored the system of taboo and ordered the restoration of Yunxiang’s original name Yinxiang.
After selecting the site of the Tailing Tomb, Yongzheng chose a piece of "Zhongji Land" to give Yunxiang near his Wannian auspicious land. Yunxiang was horrified and reluctant to say goodbye. Suffer. Then in Laishui area, I found a "place of peace and goodness" for himself. In desperation, Yong Zheng had to fulfill his wish. However, he gave Yunxiang a unique honor behind him-the special scholars A cemetery that surpassed the Qing Dynasty prince’s garden by several times was formulated for him, in order to be immortal.
Mulin-the contradictory Emperor Daoguang
Among the emperors of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Daoguang can be regarded as a "frugal pacesetter." At the beginning of his ascension, he announced to the world: "No one is allowed to uphold the glitz, so as to let us downRealistic meaning. "Elevate frugality to the basic policy of governing the country.
However, if you have visited Muling, you will find that something is wrong-the seemingly shabby Muling Longen Temple is precisely the place where all the Qing Dynasty imperial mausoleums are enjoyed. The most magnificent and luxurious. How extravagant is it? The whole hall, and its east and west halls, are all made of golden nanmu.
What is the concept of golden nanmu? It is produced in Sichuan, Guangxi, Yunnan,In the deep mountains of Guizhou and other provinces, because of its slow growth, low output and difficult transportation, it was already a rare material as early as the Ming Dynasty.
In the 25th year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1597), the three halls of the Forbidden City were burned down in a fire, but they could not be rebuilt due to lack of wood. It was not until nearly thirty years later that someone found more than a thousand nanmu leftovers in the reeds along the way from Tianjin to the coast that the Forbidden City was partially restored. To this day, there is still no complete Nanmu Temple in the Forbidden City.
The picture shows the interior of Long'en Hall, with golden nanmu and golden pillars shining brightly under the sun (photograph/square circle).
In fact, when Emperor Daoguang’s father Jiaqing was building his own Changling, he also tried to remove the nanmu from the Dongzhimen gate, but because the whole Dongzhimen was still not enough, he had to switch to yellow loose.
According to a rough estimate, the three major halls of Muling of Emperor Daoguang used about 1,500 cubic meters of golden nanmu, which is really amazing.
Why is the Shengde Monument no longer erected?
What is the Holy Virtue Monument?
According to the Qing Dynasty system, after the emperor died and was buried, a large monument was built on the shinto of the emperor’s tomb. Engraved on the tall monument of Shengde. As the saying goes"The final conclusion of the coffin", this sacred monument is the highest summary of an emperor's life.
Since Emperor Daoguang, there has been no sacred monument erected?
Emperor Daoguang naturally hoped that his sacred virtue monument could be written with a few brilliant achievements, which will last forever.
However, until the 22nd year of Daoguang (1842), when the Sino-British "Nanjing Treaty" was signed, the Emperor Daoguang was destined to be put on a label in the history books: The emperor who cede land and pay compensation.
The humiliation this time became a psychological burden that Emperor Daoguang lingered in his life. According to the notes from the late Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, "Chunbing Murojo", on the day of the signing of the peace agreement, Emperor Daoguang did not eat or drink. "After retiring from the court, he walked on the temple steps with his hands. … I was unhappy and even abandoned the world."
forIn order to redeem himself, Emperor Daoguang made a painful act of self-derogation: Muling did not build a large monument, nor did he build a monument of sacred virtue.
The original words in the imperial edict are as follows: "In the south of the five-hole bridge in each mausoleum, there is a holy virtue stele pavilion... In the merits of my ancestors and ancestors, if the merits of my ancestors and ancestors, I would like to honor it. In my case, I dare to draft great rules, presumptuously claim to be prominent, and there is really no place to say it. It only adds to the ridicule of future generations, and I don't take it." To put it bluntly, I am ashamed of my ancestors and have no face to erect the monument of sacred virtue.
Emperor Daoguang also violently decree to prohibit his descendants from rebuilding for himself: If you can’t look up to your body and don’t follow your instructions, you will be trapped in unethical, diligent and vigilant worries for the rest of your life. Carry on. What is filial piety? Gai Da is not filial!
Since then, successive emperors have been inferior to one generation, and have never been able to restore the decline of this mansion in the Qing Dynasty. Dingling (Emperor Xianfeng), Huiling (Emperor Tongzhi) and Chongling (Emperor Guangxu) after Muling were no longer establishedShengde magic monument.
The untitled elder brother’s garden bed
In the east of the north side of the Qingxi Mausoleum, there is an inconspicuous garden The bed, this is the only elder brother’s bed in the Qing Dynasty. The owner of the tomb is the third son of Emperor Yongzheng Hongshi. What is puzzling is that the names of the other garden beds are all titled with the title of the owner of the tomb. It is said that human fate is destined, but it is not. For example, Hong Shi.
The Baoding on the backyard platform is the tomb of Hongshi. It can be seen from the picture that there are two tombs on the left and right sides of the tomb of Hongshi. The tomb is just a slightly raised mound. The two tomb owners are Hongshi’s son Yongshen and Yongzheng’s ninth son Fu. Pei (Photography/Wang Jiangshan).
Emperor Yongzheng has ten princes, six of whom died early. The oldest one is Hongshi. If Qianlong received the double favor of Kangxi and Yongzheng, Hongshi was the opposite, Yongzheng did not love, and Kangxi did not favor either.
According to researcher Yang Zhen of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, in August of the first year of Yongzheng (1723), when Yongzheng was secretly established as a reserve, he said something interesting to the Manchu civil and military: "Now My princes are still young, and the establishment of the reserve must be done carefully. Encore will be held at this time.” Among the four princes, Hongshi was 19 years old, Hongli and Hongzhou were 13 years old, and Fuhui was three. Hongshi was already a veritable young man, but Yongzheng said, "ZhuziShangyou". This just shows that when he initially considered the candidate for the crown prince, he had excluded Hongshi.
In the early years of Yongzheng ascended the throne, he still had love for Hongshi. The father-son relationship really turned bad, probably because of this. One thing: November in the first year of Yongzheng (1723) was the anniversary of Emperor Kangxi’s death. A grand ceremony was held in Jingling. Yongzheng did not go there, but sent the four sons of Hong Kong to go there. Yang Zhen believes, " This is a meaningful move: the reigning emperor sent the future emperor to pay tribute to the ascended emperor, announcing that the dynasty's hundred-year plan has been determined, the reserve has been assigned, and praying for the protection of the emperor's spirit in the sky. Hongshi was the most sensitive to this move by Emperor Yongzheng, and the most frustrated because of it. "One year later, Emperor Kangxi "received his death", and Hongli was dispatched to worship the mausoleum again. Hongshi's previous doubts were confirmed, and his illusions about inheriting Datong have been completely shattered-"in the role of resentment and jealousy Down, he further downXiang Yongzheng's opposition party allowed Xu. ”
After that, Yongzheng began to liquidate the Lian prince Yunhu Group, and Yunhu and others were dismissed from all positions and the jade medals. Hong Shi was also expelled from the clan soon and handed them to Yunxi." Constraint support". At this point, Hongshi’s political career has come to an end. At a young age, he died of depression a year later, at only twenty-four. In the early Qing Dynasty, it was stipulated that all the princes of the early death were buried in Qingdong. The Huanghuashan Garden near the mausoleum was buried in the Eastern Tomb of Qing Dynasty after Hongshi died. After the completion of Tailing, HongshiShi followed the relocation to the Qingxi Mausoleum and was buried in the elder brother's garden.
Father and son are against each other, but brothers are still affectionate. At the end of the 13th year of Yongzheng (1735), Emperor Qianlong, who succeeded Datong, gave an order to re-naturalize Hongshi and build a mausoleum within the boundaries of the Western Qing Dynasty Mausoleum.
Xiling Railway-Yeling Special Line
How difficult is the road to Yeling?
The picture shows the performance of the Ye Ling ceremony in front of the Tai Tomb in the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty (Photo courtesy/Visual China).
The distance from Beijing to Qingdong and Xiling is 125 kilometers. In the era of carriages, horses, and sedan, it takes at least 4 days for a one-way trip and 9 days for a round trip.
In order to facilitate the life and office needs of the empress, every time he visits the mausoleum, in addition to the necessary ceremonial driving and daily necessities, there are also various ministries, offices, departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and ministers of military aircraft. Numerous officials followed, and the number of vehicles was at least five or six hundred. In addition, thousands of guards will be sent along the way for protection.
The time is long and the road is hard to follow. The imperial route of the Emperor Yeling of the Qing Dynasty was temporarily repaired by the local officials. The loess road was used to clean the water and pour the street. However, it would be muddy and difficult to move on rainy days. With more vehicles, bumps are inevitable. Even due to uneven roads, vehicles overturned and people were injured.
In addition to the bumps and hard work, the empresses of YelingThere are other things to worry about: all kinds of people who hūn (hūn, hūn). During the ten-day journey of Yeling in the thirteenth year of Guangxu, 38 incidents of percussion occurred, and an average of four people blocked the road every day.
Yeling special line, made in China
The Empress Dowager Cixi is a conservative and once obstructed the construction of railways in China in every possible way. In September of the twenty-eighth year of Guangxu (1902), she took the initiative to order Yuan Shikai: In order to visit Xiling in the spring of next spring, the railway will be connected from Gaobeidian in Xincheng County to Yizhou (now Yi County, Hebei). Lianggezhuang, completed within six months. Why did Empress Dowager Cixi's attitude towards railways have undergone a radical change?
This is related to the Gengzi Change: In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces attacked the Forbidden City. Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu abandoned the city and fled to Xi'an. After returning to Beijing from Xi’an in the second year, the Belgians repairedThe Beijing-Hanzhou Railway has been opened to traffic. The minister proposed to return to Beijing by train from Zhengding. Cixi endured all the hardships of the long journey, and even though she still resisted the train, she agreed. Unexpectedly, it was a journey of many days by Yu, and it took only a few hours to arrive by train. On the way back to Beijing, Cixi once declared: "This disaster is due to the blessings of the ancestors and the ancestors. After returning to Luang, we must sacrifice to our ancestors. The offspring are not filial, so that Daqing is embarrassed by this, so we should go and ask for sin."
In 1902, Cixi and Guangxu kept their promise and went to Dongling Yeling. Comparing this trip with Yeling and the train from Zhengding back to Beijing, Empress Dowager Cixi really felt the convenience and comfort of the train. So she got the idea of taking a train to visit Xiling.
A decree was passed down, and in the future, Ye Ling "should be light and simple, and not hurt the people and money, it was called the original decree of the court to seek truth from facts." Empress Dowager Cixi's meaning is self-evident, and the construction of Yeling special line railway is on the agenda.
The choice of engineers is a top priority. Yuan Shikai originally intended that the British engineer Jinda would be responsible for the design and construction. Unexpectedly, this incident caused dissatisfaction with the French minister. The railway has become a game tool for all countries, and they are stalemate. Yuan Shikai simply abandoned foreign engineers and decided to design and build by the Chinese themselves.
The picture shows the persons in charge of the design and preparation of Yeling Railway (photo courtesy of FOTOE)
On October 19, 1902, Zhan Tianyou served as the chief engineer of Xinyi Railway. Although it was built This railway is only for the Qing Dynasty royal family to worship the tombs, but it is the first time that the Chinese have built a railway for China. Therefore, Zhan Tianyou is very happy: "This is the beginning of China's self-repairing railway. No matter any difficulties, we must work together to overcome difficulties. ,mission accomplished. "The Xinyi Railway and Qing Palace Transportation" in "Comments on Palace History of the Qing Dynasty" wrote: "According to the rules of railway construction abroad at that time, after the roadbed is completed, it will take a year to dry before the track can be laid. "But Yuan Shikai, in order to please Cixi, limited Zhan Tianyou to complete the construction within four months.: If you fail to keep up with the date of Yeling, you have committed the crime of deceiving the emperor. After careful investigation, survey, analysis, and calculation, Zhan Tianyou built the roadbed and laid the steel rails, and used old rails and sleepers borrowed by the railway bureau inside and outside the customs. The construction was finally completed ahead of schedule in February 1903.
The Yeling train only carried the Qing master once to Yeling. With the abdication of the Qing emperor, the Yeling line lost its function. Later, the special line was damaged several times, and the roadbed and bridge piers were all submerged between the long spring grass and lush pine seedlings. As the first railway designed and built by the Chinese, it was born because of Yeling, which is a mixture of sadness and joy.
Source: China National Geographic