The essence of most training programs is that they will remain effective until they lose their effectiveness, which means that they A certain degree of different things will produce adaptability. If we train in a way that we have not used before, then through practice, we will improve our strength, physical fitness and coordination. These initial adaptation phenomena are mainly neurological, which means that they appear earlyThe improvement phenomenon is caused by the increased synchronization of nerve cells and muscle fibers, rather than muscle enlargement.
However, after a period of time, it may be a few weeks, maybe a month or more In time, our body will reach a plateau, the speed of progress will begin to decline, or even stop, and it is no longer possible to increase the load in training or increase the repetition of exercisesfrequency. Once our body has adapted to this new level, strength or endurance may even appear slightly reduced, so if our body has adapted to the ongoing training program, it must be modified to continue. So how do you modify it? Here we need to follow the practice principles of the training plan, and adjust our training plan through the practice principles to get through the plateau period.
Practice principles of training plan
- Principles of personalization
Each of us is unique, and even when we encounter the same stimulus, there will be differences in the way our body responds. Therefore, these different factors should be taken into consideration when developing an evaluation training plan. No one has the same training goal (fat loss is not a goal.The target, there is a detailed explanation of the goal in my previous article), the same starting level may be different in the same training course.
Determine your own goals, and evaluate and understand your own The physical condition has a huge effect on the design of the training plan. It will determine the intensity, amount and frequency of our training, and even determine the form andstandard. It is a pity that most people do not take its importance into consideration, and skip this step and enter the practice plan directly. Unsure of the correct goal of one's own training will lead to a disorderly training plan, and a disorderly plan may eventually lead to unsatisfactory training results or failure.
Another important thing to pay attention to is what level of our current strength is and how much improvement we want to get. You must know what level you are at before you can design the best way to achieve your goals.
- The principle of specificity
The principle of specificity refers to specific training based on the functional properties of muscles. For example, completing some full speed sprints may improve our 40-yard sprint performance, but it will not increase our bench press performance. Specificity requires consideration of many factors, such as muscle,The actions used, the energy system, and the speed required to complete a particular movement in many cases.
Take a traditional strength training "chestnut", suppose we want to improve bench press strength and practice The parts include the chest, shoulders and triceps. Training can increase our bench press strength and maximum strength. As the weight lifted increases, the speed of each lifting action will decrease, many of which lead to failureThe reasons are all related to the strength of the pectoralis, shoulder deltoid and triceps.
The following table is an example of how to deal with problems in each type of bench press. The specific action patterns and muscle groups used in this exercise can solve such problems. Our goal is to improve the strength of the bench press. Although there are many exercises to strengthen the triceps alone, according to the principle of specificity, IWe need to practice to improve by completing specific press moves in the bench press.
- overload principle
- Principle of continuity
- From the whole to the part
- From fast to slow
- From heavy to light
- Load bearing from the spine To the spine does not bear weight
The principle of overloading refers to allowing the body to continuously accept challenges from training to continuously benefit from training. The adaptability of the body is the reason for the effect of training, and it is also the reason for the training to enterThe reason for the plateau period, so we need to find a way to break through the plateau period, otherwise the training will stop.
The overload principle usually increases stimulation by changing one of the four variables. We can change the intensity, the amount of training, the method of exercise or the total amount of rest, any of which has a great influence on the difficulty of training and is interrelated. I have introduced these in the article before, here is the focus of the practice method. Many times we use similar exercise patterns day after day, and with a little change, we can give the muscles a sense of freshness, such as changing the two-handed movement to one-handed.
The following is a list of one to adjust several variables The examples are intensity, amount, rest time, and exercises. What needs to be noted here is that all variables are related and affect the whole body. We need to adjust the training plan flexibly and dynamically.
When applying the principle of overload, we need to consider the principle of specificity, these two principles are interrelated, otherwise it may strengthen the wrong exercise quality and energy supply system For example, 100 squats are mainly for the development of glycolytic energy supply system, which can improve muscle endurance, while heavy load, low number of large squats, for example, only 4 squats before fatigue, the main development is ATP -CP energy supply system and muscle strength. So if our goal is to increase the maximum weight of the squat, complete a set of 4 exercises and approach muscle fatigue, it will be more helpful to improve the training effect.
Here we need to simply expand a little knowledge point, which is for our body Three energy systems for energy production.
(ATP and CP are respectively adenosine triphosphate And the abbreviation of creatine phosphate), which provides an instant energy source for activities that last no more than 30 seconds. This system is an anaerobic system.
is the duration of more than 30 seconds, 2 minutesThe following activities provide energy and are also called "lactic acid system". This system is an anaerobic system.
Also called "oxidative energy system", it provides energy for activities that last more than 2 minutes to more than 30 minutes. This The system is an aerobic system.
According to the principle of overload, we must continue to practice over time and we must find More difficult training methods. The principle of continuous training tells us that based on the principle of overload, training is carried out in a steady and orderly manner to make training safer and more efficient. To achieve this goal needs to be done in two parts.
WeIt is necessary to lay a good foundation to prepare the joints, bones and muscles for the rigorous advanced exercises.
Develop a certain technical foundation before trying advanced exercises.
The correct technique can ensure the effectiveness of our training and also ensure that the joints can bear the load within the appropriate range. Learning the correct technique is very important, because when we are fatigued, the movements may also change due to fatigue. When the movements are deviated, not only the training benefits will be reduced, but the possibility of injury will also increase.
Arrange our training in order
The function of training principles is that a certain training plan helps us achieve our goals in the early stage. is it effective. Generally speaking, all exercise types and exercise cycles should fit into a larger unified whole.
A complete training consists of three parts: warm-up, training, and relaxation . Everyone should know this training composition, so how should the actions in the training plan be sequenced?
Priority of actions
For example, if there are exercises to improve speed and sensitivity in the plan, they need to be completed first, such as marking bowls, rope ladders, cones, etc. Because these involve reaction speed, a good nervous system state is required. However, the nervous system is easily fatigued. If it is placed after other training, the training effect will be greatly reduced. Explosive training also has requirements on the nervous system, such as box jumping, medicine ball, sprint running, etc., which need to be completed before the plan. Sensitive training and explosive training generally do not appear in the training plan at the same time. You can use one as the main item and the otherThis is slightly involved.
The whole body exercise like kettlebell swing is placed after the explosive force; then you should do something like squatting This kind of multi-joint participation and mobilization exercises of the whole body muscles are started or pushed and pulled. Single joint exercises or functional training are placed last as intensive exercises, because functionality does not involve extreme sports performance.
If there are special core training in the plan, such as waist and abdominal trainingExercises, crawling training, etc., relatively low load, concentrated exercise of local muscle groups, you can do it behind the plan. Simple core activation can be done in the warm-up phase, but if today's plan is mainly strength training, then it is not suitable to fatigue the core muscles in advance, which will affect the subsequent load training effect.
Finally is the relaxation part, after all the actions are completedGradually lower your body temperature and maintain your blood volume. Restore the initial length of muscles, reduce muscle strength, and restore muscle elasticity. Promote local blood circulation and promote the emptying of local metabolites. Good relaxation is the beginning of better recovery and improvement.
If our training plan involves multiple links, their allocation in a single training is limited. We can focus on one of the links according to our own problems and goals.
I hope this article can give you a reasonable idea of adjusting the training plan and action sequence, so as to develop a perfect training plan that suits you, and achieve the ideal training effect