In international competitions such as the World Cup, America’s Cup and European Cup, the team’s tactical deployment and even performance will be affected by many objective factors, such as the competition system, the nature of the national team, and the time of the game. And so on, there are many differences from general club events. If the analysis is only from the usual perspective, the objective factors of the background of the international cup will be ignored.
First of all, the biggest difference between international competitions and club competitions lies in the number of tactical elements. Due to its nature, the players of the national team can practice together very little time each year, and will be much weaker than the club team on a tactical basis. At the same time, this greatly increases the importance of personal abilities and dead ball handling capabilities.
The term tactics has a deeper and broader meaning than offensive or defensive routines such as "focusing on the right side attack" and "long pass forward". If tactics are limited to so-called strategies or routines, for high-level players, they can be easily implemented without long hours of running-in. In today's football concept, tactics are closely related to nonverbal communication between players.
On the individual level, players interact with the surrounding environment every minute and every second on the field to receive, analyze and provide different information, including the location of the space, the behavior and location of opponents and teammates, and the ball The position and whereabouts of the player, etc.. Every behavior of the player actually happens after the player’s analysis and interpretation of this information through the brain "command". In this case, suppose the team’s 11 players are all right The situation on the court has exactly the same interpretation, and their subsequent actions are likely to be quiteMatch, the speed and accuracy of the action will be greatly improved. The so-called tactical concept is actually trying to control the process of players receiving and deducing information through some principles or frameworks, hoping to achieve consistent actions. Therefore, compared with strategies such as "attack on the right", tactical principles dominate every subtle cognitive process and action on the court. Only through long-term interaction and understanding during training can the consistency (tactical elements) of the cognitive process increase.
Some fans may think that it usually takes about a month from the start of the training camp to the start of the cup. Moreover, there are several international competition cycles every year, which is not enough. Do you cultivate tactical elements? However, this is too idealistic. The schedule of most international competitions is extremely frequent, with 2 to 3 matches within ten days, and the players have to be busy in their boats and vehicles, so many trainings are forced to The focus is on recovery. There may only be two to three training sessions in each season that focus on tactics. The training sessions before the World Cup, America’s Cup and European Cup are also the same. Most teams have arranged several friendly matches during this period. In addition, the players have been physically exhausted after a long and frequent season. Therefore, in these weeks, the player’s state and physical fitness are always the primary considerations. The coach cannot spend a lot of time on tactical training.
In the 2010 and 2014 World Cups, Germany and Spain have one thing in common, that is, there are multiple players from the same starting lineup. Clubs, this situation is quite conducive to communication and understanding between players. Players of the same club can form a mature team in certain positions, such as the Spanish midfield line (Xavi, Iniesta, Bo Skates), Germany’s right main axis. These two examples canReflect the importance of tactical elements to the success or failure of the team.
[Personal Ability and Dead Ball]
But for the general team, in the case of weak tactical ability, the player’s personal ability and dead ball Handling is of different importance in the International Cup. This phenomenon is taken for granted. When the ability to communicate and cooperate is limited, it is relatively difficult for players to create or prevent offensives with cooperation and organization. Therefore, the team can only use simpler or less tactical methods to achieve the goal, such as relying on individual breakthroughs of certain players, or teamwork between two or three players. Therefore, if the average quality of a team is mediocre, but it has one or two particularly outstanding players, compared to a team with a higher average quality but a lower degree of coordination among players, Under the influence of the objective environment of the National Team Cup, there may be greaterThe advantages. In the previous International Cups, there are really many teams that have broken through the siege under the leadership of two or three world-class players.
As for the dead ball, the situation is similar. According to the data of past World Cups, the average is about 22% of goals come from dead goals, which is a high proportion. In the same year (2018, 2014 and 2010) in the Champions League, only less than 10% of goals come from dead goals, and this comparison is based on the premise that the average number of goals per game is similar. It can be seen that the handling of dead balls is particularly important in the International Cup and may be the watershed for many competitions. Unlike sports battles, dead balls belong to "standardized" situations (Standardized Situations). The complexity and change are relatively low, which means that players can more easily generate consistent perceptions in these situations. Therefore, some coaches will pay more attention than usual. Dead ball tactics, in order to obtain the maximum results in the tight training time.
[Heavy defense Tactical deployment and midfield combination]
Another important point in World Cup, European Cup, America’s Cup and other games is that most teams will adopt conservative tactical deployments, which makes the pace of the game slower. Of course, the knockout system is one of the main reasons, which will have a certain psychological impact. In addition, the physical condition of the players is also another consideration. After a long season, the players have been dying and may not be able to adapt to the situation of every player. Playing with too much intensity and aggressiveness can easily lead to various injuries. In addition, the playing method that focuses on defense is also related to tactical elements. As mentioned above, it is based on the player's physical condition and preparation arrangements. ,In fact, national team coaches can often only establish their own tactical system within a limited time. This process mainly covers four stages: possession of the ball on the foot, no ball on the foot, turning offense to defense, and turning defense to offense. For the coach of the national team, the problem is in the limited time, which area should be focused on and time. In this case, the general coach will put defense first, and then further develop other aspects. Taking defense as the foundation can effectively consolidate the stability and confidence of the team, mainly to lay a psychological foundation, because people's psychology has the nature of "loss aversion" (Loss Aversion). Moreover, the tactical elements of defense are relatively easy to absorb and implement, because the defensive side is often a passive role. Mainly because of the above three reasons, most teams tend to adopt defensive tactics.
Referring to the FIFA technical reports published by the previous World Cups, in the column of technical and tactical analysis, it is stated that the organization, discipline and tightness of defense are the most important tactics. The category is also the key to a successful team. From the data point of view, nearly 50% of World Cup goals occur after 60 minutes of the game. It is also likely to be related to the team's steady performance in the early stages. It will not increase the attack until the physical strength drops or the end of the game is eager to win. force. This phenomenon can actually be used to dispatch troops to the teamMake a certain degree of inference. In a tactical system that requires defensiveness as the premise and requires steady play, many teams with outstanding performance have many players with more physical and defensive skills, especially in the midfield. . The following are the midfield combinations that can reach the finals since the 2002 World Cup:
2002: Brazil: Gilberto Silva, Kleberson; Germany: Harman, Schneider, Brazil Lack (without the final)
2006: Italy: Gattuso, Pirlo; France: Makelele, Vieira
2010: Spain: Xavi Alonso, Busquets; Netherlands: De Jong, Van Bommel
2014: Germany: Khedira, Schweinsteiger; Argentina: Mascherano, Biglia, Perez
2018: France: Kanter, Pogba; Croatia:Rakitic and Modric
Although they are not a rule, it can be seen that most teams that have achieved good results have more or less capable defensive midfielders in the battle.
[Does bench depth matter? 】
I often hear discussions about the depth of the bench, such as France, Germany and Spain.Enough talents form two or three powerful lineups. Of course, this statement can reflect the country's excellent youth training system and mature domestic league environment, but if it is to be linked to the team's strength, it does not seem completely reasonable. In club team competitions, the season spans more than half a year and has to deal with almost 40 or 50 games. In the face of wounded, poor form and other issues, the team usually uses more than 20 players in a season. On the contrary, in the World Cup, unless the injury problem is troubled, or the performance is poor, most national teams are not easy to make changes to the starting lineup during the game.
First of all, because the International Cup is A knockout game played in a short time. In a month, the team needs to deal with seven games, and every game is indispensable, so there is no need and space for rotation. Secondly, if the lineup is suddenly changed, the players need some time to adapt and adapt. But after the game started, the team will play a game every few days, and the training time is very limited. Furthermore, the status of the bench players who have been on the bench is also unknown. For the above reasons, in fact, in the 23-man roster, usually only 15-16 players will play most of the games and contribute to the team's performance on the court. The remaining 7-8 players can be said to be "insignificant". The last few World Cup decisionsAmong the participating teams, after seven games, each team has an average of 6-7 players playing less than 20 minutes. This is true even for teams that can reach the finals, not to mention other teams that got out earlier. Therefore, when evaluating the strength of each team, you might as well focus on the 15-16 main players. The importance of the bench can be roughly focused on the 4-5 substitutes. Other substitutes are behind the scenes such as stabilizing the military spirit or providing experience. Work will have a greater contribution.
Each international cup will have different tactical trends and characteristics . But it has to be admitted that the objective environment often sets many restrictions on the situation. The characteristics discussed above seem to be the key factors caused by the objective environment of the International Cup.
The author: football thinking big slag