In the process of circulation of agricultural products in our country, not only a complete logistics system is required, but also complicated intermediate links are required. When the products flow to consumers, all circulation costs are added to the prices of agricultural products. The prices of agricultural products are naturally high. However, in order to survive the oversupply market competition, the price of the product cannot be too high, which can be said to be high cost and low profit. The situation in the United States is just the opposite of ours. The American agricultural product circulation market is low-cost and high-yield.
In the United States, the efficiency level of the agricultural product circulation market is much higher than that of China. From the perspective of logistics costs, the United States The cost of food logistics in China is generally controlled at 10%-20%, and fresh products such as vegetables and fruits are only about 30%. In the circulation process of agricultural products in China from the field to the table, the circulation cost of agricultural products accounts for 1% of the terminal sales price. /2 or even 2/3, of which the cost of food logistics accounts for about 40% of the total cost structure, and fresh products account for more than 60%, which is twice that of the United States.
From the perspective of circulation loss, the United States The loss rate of fruits and vegetables in the logistics link is only 1%~2%, while the loss rate of fruits and vegetables and other agricultural and sideline products in China in the logistics links such as picking, transportation and storage is as high as 25%~30%, which is 10 times higher than that of the United States. More than.
From the perspective of circulation efficiency, the ratio of agricultural output value to processing output value in the United States is more than 1:3, while in my country it is only about 1:1. After the fruits are stored and processed after harvest, the value-added ratio in the United States is 1:3.8, while that in my country is only 1:1.8. The commercial processing of agricultural products after picking in my country is only 1%, the proportion of fresh-keeping storage is less than 20%, and the proportion of processing is less than 10%, while in the United States, it is more than 50%. Taking potatoes as an example, the products after intensive processing in the United States have now reached more than 2,000 varieties, while more than 90% of potatoes in my country are only used as vegetables.
Therefore, our country must:
(1) Establish a complete logistics information system
The nationwide agricultural product logistics information management system should promptly establish and apply the system to ensure the accuracy and efficiency of the collection, processing, and analysis of agricultural product information, and to promote the online trading and online settlement of agricultural products, so that China will gradually move to the order of agricultural products. Direction to improve the overall efficiency of the agricultural product supply chain;
Strengthen the integration of China’s existing agricultural website functions, establish a national unified networked agricultural website system, strengthen the interaction between websites, and increase the The efforts to collect, sort, and update agricultural product information have strengthened the timeliness of agricultural product information so that farmers can timelyObtain agricultural product logistics information from all over the country, save transaction costs, and improve circulation efficiency.
(2) Improve the level of logistics facilities and technology
Further improve the transportation conditions of railway, aviation, and navigation to ensure that agricultural products can choose the most suitable method according to the most suitable route. Circulation to the next link; through the construction of agricultural product logistics infrastructure, including rural roads, agricultural product transportation facilities, production area pre-cooling facilities, storage facilities, and market circulation refrigeration facilities, gradually realize the standardization, mechanization and automation of agricultural product logistics operations; vigorously develop Agricultural products processing technology. Through the primary processing, fine processing and deep processing of agricultural products, the value-added benefits of agricultural products can be obtained and circulation losses can be reduced; the standardization of agricultural products logistics is actively promoted to improve circulation efficiency and reduce circulation costs.
(3) Realize the integration of production, processing and sales
Products have the natural characteristics of being fresh and perishable. Production, purchase, processing, storage and transportation, and sales must be closely connected in order to maintain value and increase added value, accelerate circulation, and expand sales. At the same time, the integration of production and marketing will enable producers and operators to strengthen interdependence and cooperation due to common interests, which is conducive to market-oriented, achieving a virtuous cycle of production and circulation, and improving the degree of meeting social needs. Therefore, to realize the integration of production and marketing in our country, it is required to continuously break the division of regions and departments, expand the autonomy of enterprise management, and increase the vitality of circulation.
(4) Cultivate diversified agricultural product circulation models
It is possible to choose a batch of highly commercialized agricultural products to enter the agricultural product futures market. With the continuous acceleration of the marketization of China’s grain circulation system reform, and the full integration of the economy and the world economy after China’s entry into the WTO, there is a lot of room for innovation in agricultural product futures. Huge.
Therefore, it is necessary to change the current situation of too few futures trading products. On the basis of standardizing the development of original trading products, adapting to the trading preferences and needs of market trading entities, we must add some large-scale ones in due course. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the development of bulk futures varieties and suitable small varieties, give full play to the “price barometer” function of the grain futures market, and make the grain futures market and the spot market interact with each other.Together, they will achieve complementary advantages and organic unity.
This article was compiled by the Global Agricultural Research Office of "Agriculture and Art". Please indicate the source for reprinting.